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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission file number 001-37386
https://cdn.kscope.io/4d23a5bd9b370db85e7ca7f79fa641bd-FTAI Aviation Logo.jpg
FTAI AVIATION LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Cayman Islands98-1420784
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1345 Avenue of the Americas, 45th FloorNew YorkNY10105
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) (212) 798-6100
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report) N/A

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading Symbol:Name of exchange on which registered:
Ordinary shares, $0.01 par value per shareFTAI
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
8.25% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Series A Cumulative Perpetual Redeemable Preferred SharesFTAIP
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
8.00% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Series B Cumulative Perpetual Redeemable Preferred SharesFTAIO
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
8.25% Fixed-Rate Reset Series C Cumulative Perpetual Redeemable Preferred SharesFTAIN
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
9.50% Fixed-Rate Reset Series D Cumulative Perpetual Redeemable Preferred SharesFTAIMThe Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐ 
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No  ☑
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting ordinary equity of FTAI Aviation Ltd. held by non-affiliates as of the close of business as of June 30, 2023 was approximately $3.1 billion.
There were 100,245,905 ordinary shares outstanding at February 23, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the registrant's 2024 annual meeting, to be filed within 120 days after the close of the registrant's fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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FTAI AVIATION LTD.
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
PART I
PART II
PART III
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PART IV
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS SUMMARY
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact but instead are based on our present beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to us. You can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words. Any forward-looking statements contained in this report are based upon our historical performance and on our current plans, estimates and expectations in light of information currently available to us. The inclusion of this forward-looking information should not be regarded as a representation by us, that the future plans, estimates or expectations contemplated by us will be achieved.
Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, financial results, financial condition, business, prospects, growth strategy and liquidity. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. The following is a summary of the principal risk factors that make investing in our securities risky and may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. This summary should be read in conjunction with the more complete discussion of the risk factors we face, which are set forth in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this report. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to:
changes in economic conditions generally and specifically in our industry sectors, and other risks relating to the global economy, including, but not limited to, the Russia-Ukraine conflict and any related responses or actions by businesses and governments;
reductions in cash flows received from our assets, as well as contractual limitations on the use of our aviation assets to secure debt for borrowed money;
our ability to take advantage of acquisition opportunities at favorable prices;
a lack of liquidity surrounding our assets, which could impede our ability to vary our portfolio in an appropriate manner;
the relative spreads between the yield on the assets we acquire and the cost of financing;
adverse changes in the financing markets we access affecting our ability to finance our acquisitions;
customer defaults on their obligations;
our ability to renew existing contracts and enter into new contracts with existing or potential customers;
the availability and cost of capital for future acquisitions;
concentration of a particular type of asset or in a particular sector;
competition within the aviation industry;
the competitive market for acquisition opportunities;
risks related to operating through joint ventures, partnerships, consortium arrangements or other collaborations with third parties;
our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses;
obsolescence of our assets or our ability to sell, re-lease or re-charter our assets;
exposure to uninsurable losses and force majeure events;
the legislative/regulatory environment and exposure to increased economic regulation;
exposure to the oil and gas industry’s volatile oil and gas prices;
difficulties in obtaining effective legal redress in jurisdictions in which we operate with less developed legal systems;
our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and the fact that maintaining such exemption imposes limits on our operations;
our ability to successfully utilize leverage in connection with our investments;
foreign currency risk and risk management activities;
effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
exposure to environmental risks, including natural disasters, increasing environmental legislation and the broader impacts of climate change;
changes in interest rates and/or credit spreads, as well as the success of any hedging strategy we may undertake in relation to such changes;
actions taken by national, state, or provincial governments, including nationalization, or the imposition of new taxes, could materially impact the financial performance or value of our assets;
our dependence on our Manager and its professionals and actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager;
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effects of the pending acquisition of SoftBank Group Corp’s equity in Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”) by certain members of management of Fortress and Mubadala Capital;
volatility in the market price of our shares;
the inability to pay dividends to our shareholders in the future; and
other risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of this report.
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report. The forward-looking statements made in this report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement except as required by law, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from what we may have expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We caution that you should not place undue reliance on any of our forward-looking statements. Furthermore, new risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us.
PART I
Item 1. Business
Our Company
FTAI Aviation Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company, was formed on December 8, 2017 and is the surviving parent company upon completion of the transactions completed in that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger”) on November 10, 2022 between Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC and FTAI Aviation Ltd. and certain other parties thereto. Except as otherwise specified, “we”, “us”, “our”, “FTAI”, “FTAI Aviation” or “the Company” refer to us and our consolidated subsidiaries. Our business has been, and will continue to be, conducted through FTAI Aviation Holdco Ltd. (“Holdco”) for the purpose of acquiring, managing and disposing of transportation and transportation-related equipment assets.
We are externally managed by FIG LLC (the “Manager”), an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group LLC, which has a dedicated team of experienced professionals focused on the acquisition of transportation and infrastructure assets since 2002. On May 22, 2023, Fortress and Mubadala Investment Company, through its wholly owned asset management subsidiary Mubadala Capital (“Mubadala”), announced that they have entered into definitive agreements pursuant to which, among other things, certain members of Fortress management and affiliates of Mubadala will acquire 100% of the equity of Fortress that is currently indirectly held by SoftBank Group Corp. (“SoftBank”). After the closing of the transaction, Fortress will continue to operate as an independent investment manager under the Fortress brand, with autonomy over investment processes and decision making, personnel and operations.
We own and acquire high quality aviation equipment that is essential for the transportation of goods and people globally. Additionally, we own and lease offshore energy equipment. We target assets that, on a combined basis, generate strong cash flows with potential for earnings growth. We believe that there are a large number of acquisition opportunities in our markets and that our Manager’s expertise and business and financing relationships, together with our access to capital, will allow us to take advantage of these opportunities. As of December 31, 2023, we had total consolidated assets of $3.0 billion and total equity of $175.9 million.
As of December 31, 2023, our operations consisted of Aviation Leasing and Aerospace Products. Our Aviation Leasing business acquires assets that are designed to carry cargo or people. Aviation equipment assets are typically long-lived, moveable and leased by us on either operating leases or finance leases to companies that provide transportation services. Our leases generally provide for long-term contractual cash flow with high cash-on-cash yields and include structural protections to mitigate credit risk. Our Aerospace Products business develops and manufactures through a joint venture, and repairs and sells, through our maintenance facility and exclusivity arrangements, aftermarket components for aircraft engines.
Our Strategy
In general, we seek to own a diverse mix of high-quality aviation assets and equipment within our target sectors that generate predictable cash flows in markets that we believe provide the potential for strong long-term growth and attractive returns on deployed capital. We believe that by investing in a diverse mix of assets, we can select from among the best risk-adjusted investment opportunities.
We take a proactive investment approach by identifying key secular trends as they emerge within our target sectors and then pursuing what we believe are the most compelling opportunities within those sectors. We look for unique investments, including assets that are distressed or undervalued, or where we believe that we can add value through active management. We consider investments across the size spectrum, including smaller opportunities often overlooked by other investors, particularly where we believe we may be able to grow the investment over time. We believe one of our strengths is our ability to create attractive follow-on investment opportunities and deploy incremental capital within our existing portfolio.
Within each sector, we consider investments in aviation and offshore assets, including equipment that we lease to operators. We believe that as owners of both aviation and offshore assets, we have access to more opportunities and can be a more attractive counterparty to the users of our assets. Our Manager has significant prior experience in all of our target sectors, as well as a network of industry relationships, that we believe positions us well to make successful acquisitions and to actively manage and
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improve operations and cash flows of our existing and newly-acquired assets. These relationships include senior executives at lessors and operators, end users of aviation and offshore energy assets, as well as banks, lenders and other asset owners.
Asset Acquisition Process
Our strategy is to acquire assets that are essential to the transportation of goods and people globally. We acquire assets that are used by major operators of transportation networks. We seek to acquire assets and businesses that we believe operate in sectors with long-term macroeconomic growth opportunities and that have significant cash flow and upside potential from earnings growth and asset appreciation.
We approach markets and opportunities by first developing an asset acquisition strategy with our Manager and then pursuing optimal opportunities within that strategy. In addition to relying on our own experience, we source new opportunities through our Manager’s network of industry relationships in order to find, structure and execute attractive acquisitions. These relationships include senior executives at industry leading operators, end users of the assets as well as banks, lenders and other asset owners. We believe that sourcing assets both globally and through multiple channels will enable us to find the most attractive opportunities. We are selective in the assets we pursue and efficient in the manner in which we pursue them.
Once attractive opportunities are identified, our Manager performs detailed due diligence on each of our potential acquisitions. Due diligence on each of our assets always includes a comprehensive review of the asset itself as well as the industry and market dynamics, competitive positioning, and financial and operational performance. Where appropriate, our Manager conducts physical inspections, a review of the credit quality of each of our counterparties, the regulatory environment, and a review of all material documentation. In some cases, third-party specialists are hired to physically inspect and/or value the target assets.
We and our Manager also spend a significant amount of time on structuring our acquisitions to minimize risks while also optimizing expected returns. We employ what we believe to be reasonable amounts of leverage in connection with our acquisitions. In determining the amount of leverage for each acquisition, we consider a number of characteristics, including, but not limited to, the existing cash flow, the length of the lease or contract term, and the specific counterparty.
Management Agreement and Services and Profit Sharing Agreement
On July 31, 2022, in connection with our spin-off, we entered into a new management agreement with the Manager (the “Management Agreement”), an affiliate of Fortress, pursuant to which the Manager is paid annual fees in exchange for advising us on various aspects of our business, formulating our investment strategies, arranging for the acquisition and disposition of assets, arranging for financing, monitoring performance, and managing our day-to-day operations, inclusive of all costs incidental thereto. On November 10, 2022, in connection with the closing of the Merger, we entered into a Services and Profit Sharing Agreement, pursuant to which the Master GP is entitled to receive incentive payments on substantially similar terms as it was entitled to receive such payments prior to the Merger.
Please refer to Note 12 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details regarding our Management Agreement and Services and Profit Sharing Agreement.
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Our Portfolio
We own and acquire high quality aviation and offshore energy equipment that is essential for the transportation of goods and people globally. We currently invest across two market sectors: aviation leasing and aerospace products. We target assets that, on a combined basis, generate strong and stable cash flows with the potential for earnings growth and asset appreciation.
Aviation Leasing
As of December 31, 2023, in our Aviation Leasing segment, we own and manage 363 aviation assets, consisting of 96 commercial aircraft and 267 engines, including eight aircraft and seventeen engines that were still located in Russia.
As of December 31, 2023, 76 of our commercial aircraft and 175 of our engines were leased to operators or other third parties. Aviation assets currently off lease are either undergoing repair and/or maintenance, being prepared to go on lease or held in short term storage awaiting a future lease. Our aviation equipment was approximately 77% utilized during the three months ended December 31, 2023, based on the percent of days on-lease in the quarter weighted by the monthly average equity value of our aviation leasing equipment, excluding airframes. Our aircraft currently have a weighted average remaining lease term of 47 months, and our engines currently on-lease have an average remaining lease term of 16 months. The table below provides additional information on the assets in our Aviation Leasing segment:
Aviation AssetsWidebodyNarrowbodyTotal
Aircraft
Assets at January 1, 20238 98 106 
Purchases— 40 40 
Sales(2)(11)(13)
Transfers(1)(36)(37)
Assets at December 31, 20235 91 96 
Engines
Assets at January 1, 202340 184 224 
Purchases94 101 
Sales(17)(24)(41)
Transfers(19)(17)
Assets at December 31, 202332 235 267 
Aerospace Products
The Aerospace Products segment develops and manufactures through a joint venture, and repairs and sells, through our maintenance facility and exclusivity arrangements, aircraft engines and aftermarket components primarily for the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 commercial aircraft engines. Our engine and module sales are facilitated through The Module Factory, a dedicated commercial maintenance program, designed to focus on modular repair and refurbishment of CFM56-7B and CFM56-5B engines, performed by a third party. Used serviceable material is sold through our exclusive partnership with AAR Corp, who is responsible for the teardown, repair, marketing and sales of spare parts from our CFM56 engine pool. We also hold a 25% interest in the Advanced Engine Repair JV which focuses on developing new cost savings programs for engine repairs.
Corporate and Other
In addition to the above investments, our Corporate and Other segment includes offshore energy related assets which consist of vessels and equipment that support offshore oil and gas activities and are typically subject to operating leases.
Asset Management
Our Manager actively manages and monitors our portfolios of assets on an ongoing basis, and in some cases engages third parties to assist with the management of those assets. Our Manager frequently reviews the status of all of our assets, and in the case that any are returning from lease or undergoing repair, outlines our options, which may include the re-lease or sale of that asset. Our Manager plays a central role in developing and executing operational, finance and business development strategies. On a periodic basis, our Manager discusses the status of our acquired assets with our board of directors.
In some situations, we may acquire assets through a joint venture entity or own a minority position in an investment entity. In such circumstances, we will seek to protect our interests through appropriate levels of board representation, minority protections and other structural enhancements.
We and our Manager maintain relationships with operators worldwide and, through these relationships, hold direct conversations as to leasing needs and opportunities. Where helpful, we reach out to third parties who assist in leasing our assets. As an example, we often partner with Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (“MRO”) facilities in the aviation sector to lease engines and support airlines’ fleet management needs.
While we expect to hold our assets for extended periods of time, we and our Manager continually review our assets to assess
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whether we should sell or otherwise monetize them. Aspects that will factor into this process include relevant market conditions, the asset’s age, lease profile, relative concentration or remaining expected useful life.
Credit Process
We and our Manager monitor the credit quality of our various lessees on an ongoing basis. This monitoring includes interacting with our customers regularly to monitor collections, review periodic financial statements and discuss their operating performance. Most of our lease agreements are written with conditions that require reporting on the part of our lessees, and we actively reach out to our lessees to maintain contact and monitor their liquidity positions. Furthermore, many of our leases and contractual arrangements include credit enhancement elements that provide us with additional collateral or credit support to strengthen our credit position.
We are subject to concentrations of credit risk with respect to amounts due from customers on our direct finance leases and operating leases. We attempt to limit credit risk by performing ongoing credit evaluations. See “Customers.”
Customers
Our customers primarily consist of global operators of transportation networks and global industrial companies, including airlines and offshore energy service providers. We maintain ongoing relationships and discussions with our customers and seek to have consistent dialogue. In addition to helping us monitor the needs and quality of our customers, we believe these relationships help source additional opportunities and gain insight into attractive opportunities in the aviation and offshore energy sectors. A substantial portion of our revenue has historically been derived from a small number of customers. As of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, no customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue or total accounts receivable, net. We derive a significant percentage of our revenue within specific sectors from a limited number of customers. However, we do not think that we are dependent upon any particular customer, or that the loss of one or more of them would have a material adverse effect on our business or the relevant segment, because of our ability to re-lease assets at similar terms following the loss of any such customer. See “Risk Factors-Contractual defaults may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by decreasing revenues and increasing storage, positioning, collection, recovery and lost equipment expenses.”
Competition
The business of acquiring, managing and marketing aviation and offshore-equipment related assets is highly competitive. Market competition for acquisition opportunities includes traditional aviation and offshore energy companies, commercial and investment banks, as well as a growing number of non-traditional participants, such as hedge funds, private equity funds, and other private investors.
Additionally, the markets for our products and services are competitive, and we face competition from a number of sources. These competitors include engine and aircraft parts manufacturers, aircraft and aircraft engine lessors, airline and aircraft services and repair companies, aircraft spare parts distributors, offshore services providers, maritime equipment lessors and other transportation equipment lessors and operators.
We compete with other market participants on the basis of industry knowledge, availability of capital, and deal structuring experience and flexibility, among other things. We believe our Manager’s experience in the aviation and offshore industries and our access to capital, in addition to our focus on diverse asset classes and customers, provides a competitive advantage versus competitors that maintain a single sector focus.
Governmental Regulations
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants to air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites and noise and emission levels. Under some environmental laws in the United States and certain other countries, strict liability may be imposed on the owners or operators of assets, which could render us liable for environmental and natural resource damages without regard to negligence or fault on our part. We could incur substantial costs, including cleanup costs, fines and third-party claims for property or natural resource damage and personal injury, as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws and regulations in connection with our or our lessee’s or charterer’s current or historical operations. While we typically maintain liability insurance coverage and typically require our lessees to provide us with indemnity against certain losses, the insurance coverage is subject to large deductibles, limits on maximum coverage and significant exclusions and may not be sufficient or available to protect against any or all liabilities and such indemnities may not cover or be sufficient to protect us against losses arising from environmental damage. In addition, changes to environmental standards or regulations in the industries in which we operate could limit the economic life of the assets we acquire or reduce their value, and also require us to make significant additional investments in order to maintain compliance.
Sustainability
As part of our strategy, we are focused on supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy and aim to provide sustainable aviation and offshore solutions by leveraging our Manager’s expertise and business and financing relationships, as well as our access to capital. Certain of our current sustainability solutions and investments are highlighted below, and we expect to continue to explore additional sustainability-related opportunities.
Aerospace
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As previously announced, in December 2021 we entered into an agreement with AAR CORP. (NYSE: AIR) to create Serviceable Engine Products, an exclusive seven-year CFM56 used serviceable material (“USM”) partnership. The partnership aims to build USM inventory for the global aviation aftermarket and our own consumption at The Module Factory™, a dedicated commercial maintenance program, designed to focus on modular repair and refurbishment of CFM56-7B and CFM56-5B engines, performed by a third party. Through its worldwide network, AAR is expected to manage the teardown, repair, marketing and sales of spare parts from our CFM56 engine pool totaling over 200 engines and growing. We believe our partnership with AAR will help maximize the life of our engine assets and reduce our carbon footprint and environmental impact.
Human Capital Management
Our Manager provides a management team and other professionals who are responsible for implementing our business strategy and performing certain services for us, subject to oversight by our board of directors. As of December 31, 2023, we also have approximately 170 employees at certain subsidiaries across our business segments. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and we focus heavily on employee engagement. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team, and our human capital management objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees. To facilitate attraction and retention, we strive to create a diverse, inclusive, and safe workplace, with opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by strong compensation and benefits programs.
Insurance
Our leases generally require that our customers carry physical damage and liability insurance providing primary insurance coverage for loss and damage to our assets as well as for related cargo and third parties while the assets are on lease. In addition, in certain cases, we maintain contingent liability coverage for any claims or losses on our assets while they are on hire or otherwise in the possession of a third-party. Finally, we procure insurance for our assets when they are not on hire or are otherwise under our control.
Conflicts of Interest
Although we have established certain policies and procedures designed to mitigate conflicts of interest, there can be no assurance that these policies and procedures will be effective in doing so. It is possible that actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest could give rise to investor dissatisfaction, litigation or regulatory enforcement actions.
One or more of our officers and directors have responsibilities and commitments to entities other than us. In addition, we do not have a policy that expressly prohibits our directors, officers, security holders or affiliates from engaging in business activities of the types conducted by us for their own account. See “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Manager-There are conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager.”
Our key agreements, including our Management Agreement, the services and profit sharing agreement (the “Services and Profit Sharing Agreement”) with our subsidiary Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC and Fortress Worldwide Transportation and Infrastructure Master GP LLC (“Master GP”) and our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association (as amended from time to time, the ‘‘Articles’’) were negotiated among related parties, and their respective terms, including fees and other amounts payable, may not be as favorable to us as terms negotiated on an arm’s-length basis with unaffiliated parties. Our independent directors may not vigorously enforce the provisions of our Management Agreement against our Manager. For example, our independent directors may refrain from terminating our Manager because doing so could result in the loss of key personnel.
We may compete with entities affiliated with our Manager or Fortress for certain target assets. From time to time, affiliates of Fortress may focus on investments in assets with a similar profile as our target assets that we may seek to acquire. These affiliates may have meaningful purchasing capacity, which may change over time depending upon a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, available equity capital and debt financing, market conditions and cash on hand. Fortress has multiple existing and planned funds focused on investing in one or more of the sectors in which we acquire assets, each with significant current or expected capital commitments. We may co-invest with these funds in certain target assets. Fortress funds generally have a fee structure similar to ours, but the fees actually paid will vary depending on the size, terms and performance of each fund.
Our Manager may determine, in its discretion, to make a particular acquisition through an investment vehicle other than us. Investment allocation decisions will reflect a variety of factors, such as a particular vehicle’s availability of capital (including financing), investment objectives and concentration limits, legal, regulatory, tax and other similar considerations, the source of the opportunity and other factors that the Manager, in its discretion, deems appropriate. Our Manager does not have an obligation to offer us the opportunity to participate in any particular investment, even if it meets our asset acquisition objectives. In addition, employees of Fortress or certain of its affiliates—including personnel providing services to or on behalf of our Manager—may perform services for Fortress affiliates that may acquire or seek to acquire aviation and offshore energy-related assets.
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Where Readers Can Find Additional Information
FTAI Aviation Ltd. is a Cayman Islands exempted company. Our principal executive offices are located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105. FTAI Aviation Ltd. files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Exchange Act, with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public from the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov.
Our internet site is http://www.www.ftaiaviation.com. We will make available free of charge through our internet site our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed on behalf of directors and executive officers and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Also posted on our website in the ‘‘Investor Center - Corporate Governance’’ section are charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Ethics for our officers, and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing our directors, officers and employees. Information on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risks and other information in this Form 10-K in evaluating us and our shares. Any of the following risks, as well as additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. The risk factors generally have been separated into the following categories: risks related to our business, risks related to our Manager, risks related to taxation and risks related to the Company’s shares. However, these categories do overlap and should not be considered exclusive.
Risks Related to Our Business
Uncertainty relating to macroeconomic conditions may reduce the demand for our assets, result in non-performance of contracts by our lessees or charterers, limit our ability to obtain additional capital to finance new investments, or have other unforeseen negative effects.
Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions in the United States and abroad, including significant tightening of credit markets and commodity price volatility, historically have created difficult operating environments for owners and operators in the transportation industries. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our operating results or financial condition and/or affect the lessees and charterers that form our customer base. For some years, the world has experienced weakened economic conditions and volatility following adverse changes in global capital markets. Excess supply in oil and gas markets can put significant downward pressure on prices for these commodities, and may affect demand for assets used in production, refining and transportation of oil and gas. In the past, a significant decline in oil prices has led to lower offshore exploration and production budgets worldwide. These conditions have resulted in significant contraction, deleveraging and reduced liquidity in the credit markets. A number of governments have implemented, or are considering implementing, a broad variety of governmental actions or new regulations for the financial markets. In addition, limitations on the availability of capital, higher costs of capital for financing expenditures or the desire to preserve liquidity, may cause our current or prospective customers to make reductions in future capital budgets and spending.
Further, demand for our assets is related to passenger and cargo traffic growth, which in turn is dependent on general business and economic conditions. Global economic downturns could have an adverse impact on passenger and cargo traffic levels and consequently our lessees’ and charterers’ business, which may in turn result in a significant reduction in revenues, earnings and cash flows, difficulties accessing capital and a deterioration in the value of our assets. We have in the past been exposed to increased credit risk from our customers and third parties who have obligations to us, which resulted in non-performance of contracts by our lessees and adversely impacted our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We cannot assure you that similar loss events may not occur in the future.
Instability in geographies where we have assets or where we derive revenue could have a material adverse effect on our business, customers, operations and financial results.
Economic, civil, military and political uncertainty exists and may increase in regions where we operate and derive our revenue. Various countries in which we operate are experiencing and may continue to experience military action and civil and political unrest. We have assets in the emerging market economies of Eastern Europe, including some assets in Russia. In late February 2022, Russian military forces launched significant military action against Ukraine. The conflict remains ongoing and sustained conflict and disruption in the region is likely. The impact to Russia and Ukraine, as well as actions taken by other countries, including new and stricter export controls and sanctions by Canada, the United Kingdom, the European Union, the U.S. and other countries and organizations against officials, individuals, regions, and industries in Russia and Ukraine, and each country’s potential response to such sanctions, tensions and military actions, could have a material adverse effect on our business and delay or prevent us from accessing certain of our assets. We are actively monitoring the security of our remaining assets in the region.
The aviation industry has experienced periods of oversupply during which lease rates and asset values have declined, particularly during the most recent economic downturn, and any future oversupply could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
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The oversupply of a specific asset is likely to depress the lease or charter rates for and the value of that type of asset and result in decreased utilization of our assets, and the industries in which we operate have experienced periods of oversupply during which rates and asset values have declined, particularly during the most recent economic downturn. Factors that could lead to such oversupply include, without limitation:
general demand for the type of assets that we purchase;
general macroeconomic conditions, including market prices for commodities that our assets may serve;
geopolitical events, including war, prolonged armed conflict and acts of terrorism;
outbreaks of communicable diseases and natural disasters;
governmental regulation;
interest rates;
the availability of credit;
potential reduced cash flows and financial condition, including potential liquidity restraints;
restructurings and bankruptcies of companies in the industries in which we operate, including our customers;
manufacturer production levels and technological innovation;
manufacturers merging or exiting the industry or ceasing to produce certain asset types;
retirement and obsolescence of the assets that we own;
increases in supply levels of assets in the market due to the sale or merging of operating lessors; and
reintroduction of previously unused or dormant assets into the industries in which we operate.
These and other related factors are generally outside of our control and could lead to persistence of, or increase in, the oversupply of the types of assets that we acquire or decreased utilization of our assets, either of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow. In addition, aviation lessees may redeliver our assets to locations where there is oversupply, which may lead to additional repositioning costs for us if we move them to areas with higher demand. Positioning expenses vary depending on geographic location, distance, rates and other factors, and may not be fully covered by drop-off charges collected from the last lessees of the equipment or pick-up charges paid by the new lessees. Positioning expenses can be significant if a large portion of our assets are returned to locations with weak demand, which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The airline industry is heavily regulated, and if we fail to comply with applicable requirements, our results of operations could suffer.
The Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) and equivalent regulatory agencies have increasingly focused on the need to assure that airline industry products are designed with sufficient cybersecurity controls to protect against unauthorized access or other unwanted compromise. A failure to meet these evolving expectations could negatively impact sales into the industry and expose us to legal or contractual liability.
Governmental agencies throughout the world, including the FAA, prescribe standards and qualification requirements for aircraft components, including virtually all commercial airline and general aviation products. Specific regulations vary from country to country, although compliance with FAA requirements generally satisfies regulatory requirements in other countries. If any material authorization or approval qualifying us to supply our products is revoked or suspended, then sale of the product would be prohibited by law, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, the FAA or equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries propose new regulations or changes to existing regulations, which often are more stringent than existing regulations. If such proposals are adopted and enacted, we may incur significant additional costs to achieve compliance, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Recent trends by China’s aviation authority to relax restrictions on airspace may be reversed, and anticipated new regulations loosening airspace restrictions may not materialize, which could impact sales prospects in China for our commercial aerospace businesses.
The retirement or prolonged grounding of commercial aircraft could reduce our revenues and the value of any related inventory.
We sell aircraft components and replacement parts. If aircraft or engines for which we offer aircraft components and replacement parts are retired or grounded for prolonged periods of time and there are fewer aircraft that require these components or parts, our revenues may decline as well as the value of any related inventory.
Contractual defaults may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by decreasing revenues and increasing storage, positioning, collection, recovery and lost equipment expenses.
The success of our business depends in large part on the success of the operators in the sectors in which we participate. Cash flows from our assets are substantially impacted by our ability to collect compensation and other amounts to be paid in respect of such assets from the customers with whom we enter into leases, charters or other contractual arrangements. Inherent in the nature of the leases, charters and other arrangements for the use of such assets is the risk that we may not receive, or may
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experience delay in realizing, such amounts to be paid. While we target the entry into contracts with credit-worthy counterparties, no assurance can be given that such counterparties will perform their obligations during the term of the leases, charters or other contractual arrangements. In addition, when counterparties default, we may fail to recover all of our assets, and the assets we do recover may be returned in damaged condition or to locations where we will not be able to efficiently lease, charter or sell them. In most cases, we maintain, or require our lessees to maintain, certain insurances to cover the risk of damages or loss of our assets. However, these insurance policies may not be sufficient to protect us against a loss.
Depending on the specific sector, the risk of contractual defaults may be elevated due to excess capacity as a result of oversupply during the most recent economic downturn. We lease assets to our customers pursuant to fixed-price contracts, and our customers then seek to utilize those assets to transport goods and provide services. If the price at which our customers receive for their transportation services decreases as a result of an oversupply in the marketplace, then our customers may be forced to reduce their prices in order to attract business (which may have an adverse effect on their ability to meet their contractual lease obligations to us), or may seek to renegotiate or terminate their contractual lease arrangements with us to pursue a lower-priced opportunity with another lessor, which may have a direct, adverse effect on us. See “-The industries in which we operate have experienced periods of oversupply during which lease rates and asset values have declined, particularly during the most recent economic downturn, and any future oversupply could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.” Any default by a material customer would have a significant impact on our profitability at the time the customer defaulted, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. In addition, some of our counterparties may reside in jurisdictions with legal and regulatory regimes that make it difficult and costly to enforce such counterparties’ obligations.
We acquire a high concentration of a particular type of asset, or concentrate our investments in a particular sector, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected by changes in market demand or problems specific to that asset or sector.
If we acquire a high concentration of a particular asset, or concentrate our investments in a particular sector, and our business and financial results could be adversely affected by sector-specific or asset-specific factors. If the market demand for a particular asset declines, it is redesigned or replaced by its manufacturer or it experiences design or technical problems, the value and rates relating to such asset may decline, and we may be unable to lease such asset on favorable terms, if at all. Any decrease in the value and rates of our assets may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We operate in highly competitive markets.
The business of acquiring aviation assets is highly competitive. Market competition for opportunities includes traditional transportation companies, commercial and investment banks, as well as a growing number of non-traditional participants, such as hedge funds, private equity funds and other private investors, including Fortress-related entities. Some of these competitors may have access to greater amounts of capital and/or to capital that may be committed for longer periods of time or may have different return thresholds than us, and thus these competitors may have certain advantages not shared by us. In addition, competitors may have incurred, or may in the future incur, leverage to finance their debt investments at levels or on terms more favorable than those available to us. Strong competition for investment opportunities could result in fewer such opportunities for us, as certain of these competitors have established and are establishing investment vehicles that target the same types of assets that we intend to purchase.
In addition, some of our competitors may have longer operating histories, greater financial resources and lower costs of capital than us, and consequently, may be able to compete more effectively in one or more of our target markets. We likely will not always be able to compete successfully with our competitors and competitive pressures or other factors may also result in significant price competition, particularly during industry downturns, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Certain liens may arise on our assets.
Certain of our assets are currently subject to liens under separate financing arrangements entered into by certain subsidiaries in connection with acquisitions of assets. In the event of a default under such arrangements by the applicable subsidiary, the lenders thereunder would be permitted to take possession of or sell such assets. In addition, our currently owned assets and assets that we purchase in the future may be subject to other liens based on the industry practices relating to such assets. Until they are discharged, these liens could impair our ability to repossess, re-lease or sell our assets, and to the extent our lessees or charterers do not comply with their obligations to discharge any liens on the applicable assets, we may find it necessary to pay the claims secured by such liens in order to repossess such assets. Such payments could materially adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
The values of our assets may fluctuate due to various factors.
The fair market values of our assets may decrease or increase depending on a number of factors, including the prevailing level of charter or lease rates from time to time, general economic and market conditions affecting our target markets, type and age of assets, supply and demand for assets, competition, new governmental or other regulations and technological advances, all of which could impact our profitability and our ability to lease, develop, operate, or sell such assets. In addition, our assets depreciate as they age and may generate lower revenues and cash flows. We must be able to replace such older, depreciated assets with newer assets, or our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and cash flows will decline. In addition, if we
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dispose of an asset for a price that is less than the depreciated book value of the asset on our balance sheet or if we determine that an asset’s value has been impaired, we will recognize a related charge in our consolidated statement of operations and such charge could be material.
We may not generate a sufficient amount of cash or generate sufficient free cash flow to fund our operations or repay our indebtedness.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness as required depends on our ability to generate cash flow in the future. This ability, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. If we do not generate sufficient free cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, including interest payments and the payment of principal at maturity, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets, reducing or delaying capital investments or seeking to raise additional capital. We cannot provide assurance that any refinancing would be possible, that any assets could be sold, or, if sold, of the timeliness and amount of proceeds realized from those sales, that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms, if at all, or that additional financing would be permitted under the terms of our various debt instruments then in effect. Furthermore, our ability to refinance would depend upon the condition of the finance and credit markets. Our inability to generate sufficient free cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis, would materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our use of joint ventures or partnerships, and our Manager’s outsourcing of certain functions, may present unforeseen obstacles or costs.
We have acquired and may in the future acquire interests in certain assets in cooperation with third-party partners or co-investors through jointly-owned acquisition vehicles, joint ventures or other structures. In these co-investment situations, our ability to control the management of such assets depends upon the nature and terms of the joint arrangements with such partners and our relative ownership stake in the asset, each of which will be determined by negotiation at the time of the investment and the determination of which is subject to the discretion of our Manager. Depending on our Manager’s perception of the relative risks and rewards of a particular asset, our Manager may elect to acquire interests in structures that afford relatively little or no operational and/or management control to us. Such arrangements present risks not present with wholly-owned assets, such as the possibility that a co-investor becomes bankrupt, develops business interests or goals that conflict with our interests and goals in respect of the assets, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, our Manager expects to utilize third-party contractors to perform services and functions related to the operation and leasing of our assets. These functions may include billing, collections, recovery and asset monitoring. Because we and our Manager do not directly control these third parties, there can be no assurance that the services they provide will be delivered at a level commensurate with our expectations, or at all. The failure of any such third-party contractors to perform in accordance with our expectations could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to the risks and costs of obsolescence of our assets.
Technological and other improvements expose us to the risk that certain of our assets may become technologically or commercially obsolete. For example, as manufacturers introduce technological innovations and new types of aircraft, some of our assets could become less desirable to potential lessees. Such technological innovations may increase the rate of obsolescence of existing aircraft faster than currently anticipated by us. In addition, the imposition of increased regulation regarding stringent noise or emissions restrictions may make some of our aircraft less desirable and less valuable in the marketplace. In our offshore energy business, development and construction of new, sophisticated, high-specification assets could cause our assets to become less desirable to potential charterers, and insurance rates may also increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to potential charterers. Any of these risks may adversely affect our ability to lease, charter or sell our assets on favorable terms, if at all, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
The inability to obtain certain components from suppliers could harm our business.
Our business is affected by the availability and price of the component parts that we use to maintain our products or to manufacture products. Our ability to manage inventory and meet delivery requirements may be constrained by our suppliers’ ability to adjust delivery of long-lead time products during times of volatile demand. The supply chains for our business could also be disrupted by external events such as natural disasters, extreme weather events, pandemics, labor disputes, governmental actions and legislative or regulatory changes. As a result, our suppliers may fail to perform according to specifications when required and we may be unable to identify alternate suppliers or to otherwise mitigate the consequences of their non-performance.
Transitions to new suppliers may result in significant costs and delays, including those related to the required recertification of parts obtained from new suppliers with our customers and/or regulatory agencies. Our inability to fill our supply needs could jeopardize our ability to fulfill obligations under customer contracts, which could result in reduced revenues and profits, contract penalties or terminations, and damage to customer relationships. Further, increased costs of such components could reduce our profits if we were unable to pass along such price in-creases to our customers.
We could be negatively impacted by environmental, social, and governance (ESG) and sustainability-related matters.
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Governments, investors, customers, employees and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on corporate ESG practices and disclosures, and expectations in this area are rapidly evolving. We have announced, and may in the future announce, sustainability-focused investments, partnerships and other initiatives and goals. These initiatives, aspirations, targets or objectives reflect our current plans and aspirations and are not guarantees that we will be able to achieve them. Our efforts to accomplish and accurately report on these initiatives and goals present numerous operational, regulatory, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks, any of which could have a material negative impact, including on our reputation and stock price.
In addition, the standards for tracking and reporting on ESG matters are relatively new, have not been harmonized and continue to evolve. Our selection of disclosure frameworks that seek to align with various voluntary reporting standards may change from time to time and may result in a lack of comparative data from period to period. Moreover, our processes and controls may not always align with evolving voluntary standards for identifying, measuring, and reporting ESG metrics, our interpretation of reporting standards may differ from those of others, and such standards may change over time, any of which could result in significant revisions to our goals or reported progress in achieving such goals. In this regard, the criteria by which our ESG practices and disclosures are assessed may change due to the quickly evolving landscape, which could result in greater expectations of us and cause us to undertake costly initiatives to satisfy such new criteria. The increasing attention to corporate ESG initiatives could also result in increased investigations and litigation or threats thereof. If we are unable to satisfy such new criteria, investors may conclude that our ESG and sustainability practices are inadequate. If we fail or are perceived to have failed to achieve previously announced initiatives or goals or to accurately disclose our progress on such initiatives or goals, our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We may be affected by fluctuating prices for fuel and energy.
Volatility in energy prices could have a significant effect on a variety of items including, but not limited to, the economy and demand for transportation services.
International, political, and economic factors, events and conditions, including current sanctions against Russia related to its invasion of Ukraine, affect the volatility of fuel prices and supplies. Weather can also affect fuel supplies and limit domestic refining capacity. A severe shortage of, or disruption to, domestic fuel supplies could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Our assets generally require routine maintenance, and we may be exposed to unforeseen maintenance costs.
We may be exposed to unforeseen maintenance costs for our assets associated with a lessee’s or charterer’s failure to properly maintain the asset. We enter into leases and charters with respect to some of our assets pursuant to which the lessees are primarily responsible for many obligations, which generally include complying with all governmental requirements applicable to the lessee or charterer, including operational, maintenance, government agency oversight, registration requirements and other applicable directives. Failure of a lessee or charterer to perform required maintenance during the term of a lease or charter could result in a decrease in value of an asset, an inability to re-lease or charter an asset at favorable rates, if at all, or a potential inability to utilize an asset. Maintenance failures would also likely require us to incur maintenance and modification costs upon the termination of the applicable lease or charter; such costs to restore the asset to an acceptable condition prior to re-leasing, charter or sale could be substantial. Any failure by our lessees or charterers to meet their obligations to perform required scheduled maintenance or our inability to maintain our assets could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Some of our customers operate in highly regulated industries and changes in laws or regulations, including laws with respect to international trade, may adversely affect our ability to lease, charter or sell our assets.
Some of our customers operate in highly regulated industries such as aviation and offshore energy. A number of our contractual arrangements-for example, our leasing aircraft engines or offshore energy equipment to third-party operators-require the operator (our customer) to obtain specific governmental or regulatory licenses, consents or approvals. These include consents for certain payments under such arrangements and for the export, import or re-export of the related assets. Failure by our customers or, in certain circumstances, by us, to obtain certain licenses and approvals could negatively affect our ability to conduct our business. In addition, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects the operation of our assets to international trade laws and regulations. Moreover, many countries, including the United States, control the export and re-export of certain goods, services and technology and impose related export recordkeeping and reporting obligations. Governments also may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and other entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities. If any such regulations or sanctions affect the asset operators that are our customers, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
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Certain of our assets are subject to purchase options held by the charterer or lessee of the asset which, if exercised, could reduce the size of our asset base and our future revenues.
We have granted purchase options to the charterers and lessees of certain of our assets. The market values of these assets may change from time to time depending on a number of factors, such as general economic and market conditions affecting the industries in which we operate, competition, cost of construction, governmental or other regulations, technological changes and prevailing levels of charter or lease rates from time to time. The purchase price under a purchase option may be less than the asset’s market value at the time the option may be exercised. In addition, we may not be able to obtain a replacement asset for the price at which the asset is sold. In such cases, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
The profitability of our offshore energy assets may be impacted by the profitability of the offshore oil and gas industry generally, which is significantly affected by, among other things, volatile oil and gas prices.
Demand for assets in the offshore energy business and our ability to secure charter contracts for our assets at favorable charter rates following expiry or termination of existing charters will depend, among other things, on the level of activity in the offshore oil and gas industry. The offshore oil and gas industry is cyclical and volatile, and demand for oil-service assets depends on, among other things, the level of development and activity in oil and gas exploration, as well as the identification and development of oil and gas reserves and production in offshore areas worldwide. The availability of high quality oil and gas prospects, exploration success, relative production costs, the stage of reservoir development, political concerns and regulatory requirements all affect the level of activity for charterers of oil-service vessels. Accordingly, oil and gas prices and market expectations of potential changes in these prices significantly affect the level of activity and demand for oil-service assets. Oil and gas prices can be extremely volatile and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control, such as: worldwide demand for oil and gas; costs of exploring, developing, producing and delivering oil and gas; expectations regarding future energy prices; the ability of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to set and maintain production levels and impact pricing; the level of production in non-OPEC countries; governmental regulations and policies regarding development of oil and gas reserves; local and international political, economic and weather conditions; domestic and foreign tax or trade policies; political and military conflicts in oil-producing and other countries; and the development and exploration of alternative fuels. Any reduction in the demand for our assets due to these or other factors could materially adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
We may not be able to renew or obtain new or favorable charters or leases, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our operating leases are subject to greater residual risk than direct finance leases because we will own the assets at the expiration of an operating lease term and we may be unable to renew existing charters or leases at favorable rates, or at all, or sell the leased or chartered assets, and the residual value of the asset may be lower than anticipated. In addition, our ability to renew existing charters or leases or obtain new charters or leases will also depend on prevailing market conditions, and upon expiration of the contracts governing the leasing or charter of the applicable assets, we may be exposed to increased volatility in terms of rates and contract provisions. For example, we do not currently have long-term charters for our construction support vessel and our ROV support vessel. Likewise, our customers may reduce their activity levels or seek to terminate or renegotiate their charters or leases with us. If we are not able to renew or obtain new charters or leases in direct continuation, or if new charters or leases are entered into at rates substantially below the existing rates or on terms otherwise less favorable compared to existing contractual terms, or if we are unable to sell assets for which we are unable to obtain new contracts or leases, our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Litigation to enforce our contracts and recover our assets has inherent uncertainties that are increased by the location of our assets in jurisdictions that have less developed legal systems.
While some of our contractual arrangements are governed by New York law and provide for the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located in the state of New York, our ability to enforce our counterparties’ obligations under such contractual arrangements is subject to applicable laws in the jurisdiction in which enforcement is sought. While some of our existing assets are used in specific jurisdictions, transportation and aviation assets by their nature generally move throughout multiple jurisdictions in the ordinary course of business. As a result, it is not possible to predict, with any degree of certainty, the jurisdictions in which enforcement proceedings may be commenced. Litigation and enforcement proceedings have inherent uncertainties in any jurisdiction and are expensive. These uncertainties are enhanced in countries that have less developed legal systems where the interpretation of laws and regulations is not consistent, may be influenced by factors other than legal merits and may be cumbersome, time-consuming and even more expensive. For example, repossession from defaulting lessees may be difficult and more expensive in jurisdictions whose laws do not confer the same security interests and rights to creditors and lessors as those in the United States and where the legal system is not as well developed. As a result, the remedies available and the relative success and expedience of collection and enforcement proceedings with respect to the owned assets in various jurisdictions cannot be predicted. To the extent more of our business shifts to areas outside of the United States and Europe, such as Asia and the Middle East, it may become more difficult and expensive to enforce our rights and recover our assets.
Our international operations involve additional risks, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We and our customers operate in various regions throughout the world. As a result, we may, directly or indirectly, be exposed to political and other uncertainties, including risks of:
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terrorist acts, armed hostilities, war and civil disturbances;
acts of piracy;
potential cybersecurity attacks;
significant governmental influence over many aspects of local economies;
seizure, nationalization or expropriation of property or equipment;
repudiation, nullification, modification or renegotiation of contracts;
limitations on insurance coverage, such as war risk coverage, in certain areas;
political unrest;
foreign and U.S. monetary policy and foreign currency fluctuations and devaluations;
the inability to repatriate income or capital;
complications associated with repairing and replacing equipment in remote locations;
import-export quotas, wage and price controls, imposition of trade barriers;
U.S. and foreign sanctions or trade embargoes;
restrictions on the transfer of funds into or out of countries in which we operate;
compliance with U.S. Treasury sanctions regulations restricting doing business with certain nations or specially designated nationals;
regulatory or financial requirements to comply with foreign bureaucratic actions;
compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations;
changing taxation policies, including confiscatory taxation;
other forms of government regulation and economic conditions that are beyond our control; and
governmental corruption.
Any of these or other risks could adversely impact our customers’ international operations which could materially adversely impact our operating results and growth opportunities.
We may make acquisitions in emerging markets throughout the world, and investments in emerging markets are subject to greater risks than developed markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
To the extent that we acquire assets in emerging markets-which we may do throughout the world-additional risks may be encountered that could adversely affect our business. Emerging market countries have less developed economies and infrastructure and are often more vulnerable to economic and geopolitical challenges and may experience significant fluctuations in gross domestic product, interest rates and currency exchange rates, as well as civil disturbances, government instability, nationalization and expropriation of private assets and the imposition of taxes or other charges by government authorities. In addition, the currencies in which investments are denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible or may be subject to the imposition of other monetary or fiscal controls and restrictions.
Emerging markets are still in relatively early stages of their development and accordingly may not be highly or efficiently regulated. Moreover, emerging markets tend to be shallower and less liquid than more established markets which may adversely affect our ability to realize profits from our assets in emerging markets when we desire to do so or receive what we perceive to be their fair value in the event of a realization. In some cases, a market for realizing profits from an investment may not exist locally. In addition, issuers based in emerging markets are not generally subject to uniform accounting and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to issuers based in more developed countries, thereby potentially increasing the risk of fraud and other deceptive practices. Settlement of transactions may be subject to greater delay and administrative uncertainties than in developed markets and less complete and reliable financial and other information may be available to investors in emerging markets than in developed markets. In addition, economic instability in emerging markets could adversely affect the value of our assets subject to leases or charters in such countries, or the ability of our lessees or charters, which operate in these markets, to meet their contractual obligations. As a result, lessees or charterers that operate in emerging market countries may be more likely to default under their contractual obligations than those that operate in developed countries. Liquidity and volatility limitations in these markets may also adversely affect our ability to dispose of our assets at the best price available or in a timely manner.
As we have and may continue to acquire assets located in emerging markets throughout the world, we may be exposed to any one or a combination of these risks, which could adversely affect our operating results.
We are actively evaluating potential acquisitions of assets and operating companies in other aviation sectors which could result in additional risks and uncertainties for our business and unexpected regulatory compliance costs.
While our existing portfolio primarily consists of assets in the aviation sector, we are actively evaluating potential acquisitions of assets and operating companies in sectors of the aviation market in which we do not currently operate and we plan to be flexible as other attractive opportunities arise over time. To the extent we make acquisitions in other sectors, we will face numerous risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with the required investment of capital and other resources and with combining or integrating operational and management systems and controls. Entry into certain lines of business may subject us to new laws
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and regulations and may lead to increased litigation and regulatory risk. Many types of transportation assets, including certain aviation assets, are subject to registration requirements by U.S. governmental agencies, as well as foreign governments if such assets are to be used outside of the United States. Failing to register the assets, or losing such registration, could result in substantial penalties, forced liquidation of the assets and/or the inability to operate and, if applicable, lease the assets. We may need to incur significant costs to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to any such new acquisition. The failure to comply with these laws and regulations could cause us to incur significant costs, fines or penalties or require the assets to be removed from service for a period of time resulting in reduced income from these assets. In addition, if our acquisitions in other sectors produce insufficient revenues, or produce investment losses, or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations, our results of operations will be adversely affected, and our reputation and business may be harmed.
The agreements governing our indebtedness place restrictions on us and our subsidiaries, reducing operational flexibility and creating default risks.
The agreements governing our indebtedness, including, but not limited to, the indentures governing our senior unsecured notes due 2025, 2027, 2028 and 2030 (“Senior Notes”) and the second amended and restated revolving credit facility entered into on September 20, 2022, as amended by Amendment No. 1, dated as of November 22, 2022 (the “Revolving Credit Facility”), contain covenants that place restrictions on us and our subsidiaries. The indentures governing our Senior Notes and the Revolving Credit Facility restrict among other things, our and certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to:
merge, consolidate or transfer all, or substantially all, of our assets;
incur additional debt or issue preferred shares;
make certain investments or acquisitions;
create liens on our or our subsidiaries’ assets;
sell assets;
make distributions on or repurchase our shares;
enter into transactions with affiliates; and
create dividend restrictions and other payment restrictions that affect our subsidiaries.
These covenants could impair our ability to grow our business, take advantage of attractive business opportunities, pay dividends on our ordinary shares or successfully compete. A breach of any of these covenants could result in an event of default. Cross-default provisions in our debt agreements could cause an event of default under one debt agreement to trigger an event of default under our other debt agreements. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under any of our debt agreements, the lenders or holders thereof could elect to declare all outstanding debt under such agreements to be immediately due and payable.
Terrorist attacks or other hostilities could negatively impact our operations and our profitability and may expose us to liability and reputational damage.
Terrorist attacks may negatively affect our operations. Such attacks have contributed to economic instability in the United States and elsewhere, and further acts of terrorism, violence or war could similarly affect world trade and the industries in which we and our customers operate. In addition, terrorist attacks or hostilities may directly impact airports or aircraft or our physical facilities or those of our customers. In addition, it is also possible that our assets could be involved in a terrorist attack or other hostilities. The consequences of any terrorist attacks or hostilities are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Although our lease and charter agreements generally require the counterparties to indemnify us against all damages arising out of the use of our assets, and we carry insurance to potentially offset any costs in the event that our customer indemnifications prove to be insufficient, our insurance does not cover certain types of terrorist attacks, and we may not be fully protected from liability or the reputational damage that could arise from a terrorist attack which utilizes our assets.
Projects in the aerospace products and services sector are exposed to a variety of unplanned interruptions which could cause our results of operations to suffer.
Projects in the aerospace products and services sector are exposed to unplanned interruptions caused by breakdown or failure of equipment, aging infrastructure, employee error or contractor or subcontractor failure, limitations that may be imposed by equipment conditions or environmental, safety or other regulatory requirements, fuel supply or fuel transportation reductions or interruptions, labor or legal disputes, difficulties with the implementation or operation of information systems, power outages, pipeline or electricity line ruptures, catastrophic events, such as hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, floods, explosions, fires, or other disasters. Any equipment or system outage or constraint can, among other things, reduce sales, increase costs and affect the ability to meet regulatory service metrics, customer expectations and regulatory reliability and security requirements. Operational disruption, as well as supply disruption, and increased government oversight could adversely impact the cash flows available from these assets. In addition, the cost of repairing or replacing damaged assets could be considerable. Repeated or prolonged interruption may result in temporary or permanent loss of customers, substantial litigation or penalties for regulatory or contractual non-compliance, and any loss from such events may not be recoverable under relevant insurance policies. Although we believe that we are adequately insured against these types of events, no assurance can be given that the occurrence of any such event will not materially adversely affect us.
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Our leases and charters typically require payments in U.S. dollars, but many of our customers operate in other currencies; if foreign currencies devalue against the U.S. dollar, our lessees or charterers may be unable to meet their payment obligations to us in a timely manner.
Our current leases and charters typically require that payments be made in U.S. dollars. If the currency that our lessees or charterers typically use in operating their businesses devalues against the U.S. dollar, our lessees or charterers could encounter difficulties in making payments to us in U.S. dollars. Furthermore, many foreign countries have currency and exchange laws regulating international payments that may impede or prevent payments from being paid to us in U.S. dollars. Future leases or charters may provide for payments to be made in euros or other foreign currencies. Any change in the currency exchange rate that reduces the amount of U.S. dollars obtained by us upon conversion of future lease payments denominated in euros or other foreign currencies, may, if not appropriately hedged by us, have a material adverse effect on us and increase the volatility of our earnings.
Our inability to obtain sufficient capital would constrain our ability to grow our portfolio and to increase our revenues.
Our business is capital intensive, and we have used and may continue to employ leverage to finance our operations. Accordingly, our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and maintain our operations depends on the availability and cost of debt and equity capital. Additionally, our ability to borrow against our assets is dependent, in part, on the appraised value of such assets. If the appraised value of such assets declines, we may be required to reduce the principal outstanding under our debt facilities or otherwise be unable to incur new borrowings.
We can give no assurance that the capital we need will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. Our inability to obtain sufficient capital, or to renew or expand our credit facilities, could result in increased funding costs and would limit our ability to:
meet the terms and maturities of our existing and future debt facilities;
purchase new assets or refinance existing assets;
fund our working capital needs and maintain adequate liquidity; and
finance other growth initiatives.
In addition, we conduct our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”). As such, certain forms of financing such as finance leases may not be available to us. Please see “- If we are deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.”
The effects of various environmental regulations may negatively affect the industries in which we operate which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants to air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites and noise and emission levels and greenhouse gas emissions. Legislative and regulatory measures currently under consideration or being implemented by government authorities to address climate change could require reductions in our greenhouse gas or other emissions, establish a carbon tax or increase fuel or energy taxes. These legal requirements are expected to result in increased capital expenditures and compliance costs, and could result in higher costs and may require us to acquire emission credits or carbon offsets. These costs and restrictions could harm our business and results of operations by increasing our expenses or requiring us to alter our operations. The inconsistent international, regional and/or national requirements associated with climate change regulations also create economic and regulatory uncertainty.
Under some environmental laws in the United States and certain other countries, strict liability may be imposed on the owners or operators of assets, which could render us liable for environmental and natural resource damages without regard to negligence or fault on our part. We could incur substantial costs, including cleanup costs, fines and third-party claims for property damage and personal injury, as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws and regulations in connection with our or our lessee’s or charterer’s current or historical operations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, a variety of new legislation is being enacted, or considered for enactment, at the federal, state and local levels relating to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. While there has historically been a lack of consistent climate change legislation, as climate change concerns continue to grow, further legislation and regulations are expected to continue in areas such as greenhouse gas emissions control, emission disclosure requirements and building codes or other infrastructure requirements that impose energy efficiency standards. Government mandates, standards or regulations intended to mitigate or reduce greenhouse gas emissions or projected climate change impacts could result in increased energy and transportation costs, and increased compliance expenses and other financial obligations to meet permitting or development requirements that we may be unable to fully recover (due to market conditions or other factors), any of which could result in reduced profits and adversely affect our results of operations. While we typically maintain liability insurance coverage and typically require our lessees to provide us with indemnity against certain losses, the insurance coverage is subject to large deductibles, limits on maximum coverage and significant exclusions and may not be sufficient or available to protect against any or all liabilities and such indemnities may not cover or be sufficient to protect us against losses arising from environmental damage. In addition, changes to environmental standards or regulations in the industries in which we operate could limit the
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economic life of the assets we acquire or reduce their value, and also require us to make significant additional investments in order to maintain compliance, which would negatively impact our cash flows and results of operations.
The discontinuation of the LIBOR benchmark interest rate may have an impact on our business.
On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the "FCA"), which regulates LIBOR, announced that it will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR rates after 2021. On November 30, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration, or the IBA, the administrator of LIBOR, with the support of the United States Federal Reserve and the FCA, announced plans to consult on ceasing publication of LIBOR on December 31, 2021, for only the one-week and two-month LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023, for all other LIBOR tenors. The U.S. Federal Reserve concurrently issued a statement advising banks to stop new LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. The IBA ceased publication of one-week and two-month USD LIBOR settings after December 31, 2021, and the remaining USD LIBOR settings after June 30, 2023, other than certain USD LIBOR settings that are expected to continue to be published under a synthetic methodology until September 2024.
In the United States, the Alternative Reference Rate Committee (“ARRC”), a group of diverse private-market participants assembled by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, was tasked with identifying alternative reference rates to replace LIBOR. The Secured Overnight Finance Rate (“SOFR”) has emerged as the ARRC's preferred alternative rate for LIBOR. SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by Treasury securities in the repurchase agreement market. At this time, it is not possible to predict how markets will respond to SOFR or other alternative reference rates.
A cyberattack that bypasses our information technology (“IT”), security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, may lead to a disruption of our IT systems and the loss of business information which may hinder our ability to conduct our business effectively and may result in lost revenues and additional costs.
Parts of our business depend on the secure operation of our IT systems and the IT systems of our third-party providers to manage, process, store, and transmit information associated with aircraft leasing. We have, from time to time, experienced threats to our data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks. A cyberattack that bypasses our IT security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, could adversely impact our daily operations and lead to the loss of sensitive information, including our own proprietary information and that of our customers, suppliers and employees. Such losses could harm our reputation and result in competitive disadvantages, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, lost revenues, additional costs and liabilities. While we devote substantial resources to maintaining adequate levels of cyber-security, our resources and technical sophistication may not be adequate to prevent all types of cyberattacks.
If we are deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We conduct our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act. Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the Investment Company Act defines an investment company as any issuer that is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act defines an investment company as any issuer that is engaged or proposes to engage in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of the issuer’s total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. Excluded from the term “investment securities,” among other things, are U.S. government securities and securities issued by majority-owned subsidiaries that are not themselves investment companies and are not relying on the exception from the definition of investment company for certain privately-offered investment vehicles set forth in Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act.
We are a holding company that is not an investment company because we are engaged in the business of holding securities of our wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries, which are engaged in transportation and related businesses which lease assets pursuant to operating leases and finance leases. The Investment Company Act may limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to enter into financing leases and engage in other types of financial activity because less than 40% of the value of our and our subsidiaries’ total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis can consist of “investment securities.”
If we or any of our subsidiaries were required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, the registered entity would become subject to substantial regulation that would significantly change our operations, and we would not be able to conduct our business as described in this report. We have not obtained a formal determination from the SEC as to our status under the Investment Company Act and, consequently, any violation of the Investment Company Act would subject us to material adverse consequences.
Because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, you may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited.
We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon our directors or officers, or enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against our directors or officers.
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Our corporate affairs are governed by our Articles, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands (the ‘‘Cayman Companies Act’’) and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are different from what they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws as compared to the United States, and certain states, such as Delaware, may have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholders derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
We have been advised by Maples and Calder (Cayman) LLP, our Cayman Islands legal counsel, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (1) to recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state; and (2) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands Court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a United States company.
Risks Related to Our Manager
We are dependent on our Manager and other key personnel at Fortress and may not find suitable replacements if our Manager terminates the Management Agreement or if other key personnel depart.
Our officers and other individuals who perform services for us are employees of our Manager or other Fortress entities. We are completely reliant on our Manager, which has significant discretion as to the implementation of our operating policies and strategies, to conduct our business. We are subject to the risk that our Manager will terminate the Management Agreement and that we will not be able to find a suitable replacement for our Manager in a timely manner, at a reasonable cost, or at all. Furthermore, we are dependent on the services of certain key employees of our Manager and certain key employees of Fortress entities whose compensation is partially or entirely dependent upon the amount of management fees earned by our Manager or the incentive payments distributed to Master GP and whose continued service is not guaranteed, and the loss of such personnel or services could materially adversely affect our operations. We do not have key man insurance for any of the personnel of the Manager or other Fortress entities that are key to us. An inability to find a suitable replacement for any departing employee of our Manager or Fortress entities on a timely basis could materially adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business.
In addition, our Manager may assign our Management Agreement to an entity whose business and operations are managed or supervised by Mr. Wesley R. Edens, who is a principal and a member of the board of directors of Fortress, an affiliate of our Manager, and a member of the management committee of Fortress since co-founding Fortress in May 1998. In the event of any such assignment to a non-affiliate of Fortress, the functions currently performed by our Manager’s current personnel may be performed by others. We can give you no assurance that such personnel would manage our operations in the same manner as our Manager currently does, and the failure by the personnel of any such entity to acquire assets generating attractive risk-adjusted returns could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
On May 22, 2023, Fortress and Mubadala announced that they have entered into definitive agreements pursuant to which, among other things, certain members of Fortress management and affiliates of Mubadala will acquire 100% of the equity of Fortress that is currently indirectly held by SoftBank. While Fortress’s senior investment professionals are expected to remain at Fortress, including those individuals who perform services for us, there can be no assurance that the transaction will not have an adverse impact on us or our relationship with our Manager.
There are conflicts of interest in our relationship with our Manager.
Our Management Agreement and the Services and Profit Sharing Agreement and our Articles were negotiated among affiliated parties, and their terms, including fees and other amounts payable, may not be as favorable to us as if they had been negotiated with an unaffiliated third-party.
There are conflicts of interest inherent in our relationship with our Manager insofar as our Manager and its affiliates invest in aviation assets and whose investment objectives overlap with our asset acquisition objectives. Certain opportunities appropriate
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for us may also be appropriate for one or more of these other investment vehicles. Certain members of our board of directors and employees of our Manager who are our officers also serve as officers and/or directors of these other entities. For example, some of our directors and officers are also directors or officers of FTAI Infrastructure, Inc. (“FTAI Infrastructure”). Although we have the same Manager, we may compete with entities affiliated with our Manager or Fortress for certain target assets. From time to time, entities affiliated with or managed by our Manager or Fortress may focus on investments in assets with a similar profile as our target assets that we may seek to acquire. These affiliates may have meaningful purchasing capacity, which may change over time depending upon a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, available equity capital and debt financing, market conditions and cash on hand. Fortress has multiple existing and planned funds focused on investing in one or more of our target sectors, each with significant current or expected capital commitments. We have previously purchased and may in the future purchase assets from these funds, and have previously co-invested and may in the future co-invest with these funds in aviation assets. Fortress funds generally have a fee structure similar to ours, but the fees actually paid will vary depending on the size, terms and performance of each fund.
Our Management Agreement generally does not limit or restrict our Manager or its affiliates from engaging in any business or managing other operating companies similar to us or pooled investment vehicles that invest in assets that meet our asset acquisition objectives. Our Manager has also engaged in additional transportation and infrastructure related management with FTAI Infrastructure in our recent spin-off of our infrastructure assets, and may be involved in other investment opportunities in the future, any of which may compete with us for investments or result in a change in our current investment strategy. In addition, our Articles provide that if Fortress or an affiliate or any of their officers, directors or employees acquire knowledge of a potential transaction that could be a corporate opportunity, they have no duty, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to offer such corporate opportunity to us, our shareholders or our affiliates. In the event that any of our directors and officers who is also a director, officer or employee of Fortress or its affiliates acquires knowledge of a corporate opportunity or is offered a corporate opportunity, provided that this knowledge was not acquired solely in such person’s capacity as a director or officer of FTAI Aviation Ltd. and such person acts in good faith, then to the fullest extent permitted by law such person is deemed to have fully satisfied such person’s fiduciary duties owed to us and is not liable to us if Fortress or its affiliates pursues or acquires the corporate opportunity or if such person did not present the corporate opportunity to us.
The ability of our Manager and its officers and employees to engage in other business activities, subject to the terms of our Management Agreement, may reduce the amount of time our Manager, its officers or other employees spend managing us. In addition, we may engage (subject to our strategy) in material transactions with our Manager or another entity managed by our Manager or one of its affiliates, which may include, but are not limited to, certain acquisitions, financing arrangements, purchases of debt, co-investments, consumer loans, servicing advances and other assets that present an actual, potential or perceived conflict of interest. Our board of directors adopted a policy regarding the approval of any “related person transactions” pursuant to which certain of the material transactions described above may require disclosure to, and approval by, the independent members of our board of directors. Actual, potential or perceived conflicts have given, and may in the future give, rise to investor dissatisfaction, litigation or regulatory inquiries or enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and our reputation could be damaged if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with one or more potential, actual or perceived conflicts of interest. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including causing an inability to raise additional funds, a reluctance of counterparties to do business with us, a decrease in the prices of our equity securities and a resulting increased risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.
The structure of our Manager’s and Master GP’s compensation arrangements may have unintended consequences for us. We have agreed to pay our Manager a management fee and Master GP is entitled to receive incentive payments from the Company or its subsidiaries that are each based on different measures of performance. Consequently, there may be conflicts in the incentives of our Manager to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for us. In addition, because Master GP and our Manager are both affiliates of Fortress, the income incentive payment paid to Master GP may cause our Manager to place undue emphasis on the maximization of earnings, including through the use of leverage, at the expense of other objectives, such as preservation of capital, to achieve higher incentive payments. Investments with higher yield potential are generally riskier or more speculative than investments with lower yield potential. This could result in increased risk to the value of our portfolio of assets and our ordinary shares.
Our directors have approved a broad asset acquisition strategy for our Manager and will not approve each acquisition we make at the direction of our Manager. In addition, we may change our strategy without a shareholder vote, which may result in our acquiring assets that are different, riskier or less profitable than our current assets.
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Our Manager is authorized to follow a broad asset acquisition strategy. We may pursue other types of acquisitions as market conditions evolve. Our Manager makes decisions about our investments in accordance with broad investment guidelines adopted by our board of directors. Accordingly, we may, without a shareholder vote, change our target sectors and acquire a variety of assets that differ from, and are possibly riskier than, our current asset portfolio. Consequently, our Manager has great latitude in determining the types and categories of assets it may decide are proper investments for us, including the latitude to invest in types and categories of assets that may differ from those in our existing portfolio. Our directors will periodically review our strategy and our portfolio of assets. However, our board will not review or pre-approve each proposed acquisition or our related financing arrangements. In addition, in conducting periodic reviews, the directors will rely primarily on information provided to them by our Manager. Furthermore, transactions entered into by our Manager may be difficult or impossible to reverse by the time they are reviewed by the directors even if the transactions contravene the terms of the Management Agreement. In addition, we may change our asset acquisition strategy, including our target asset classes, without a shareholder vote.
Our asset acquisition strategy may evolve in light of existing market conditions and investment opportunities, and this evolution may involve additional risks depending upon the nature of the assets we target and our ability to finance such assets on a short or long-term basis. Opportunities that present unattractive risk-return profiles relative to other available opportunities under particular market conditions may become relatively attractive under changed market conditions and changes in market conditions may therefore result in changes in the assets we target. Decisions to make acquisitions in new asset categories present risks that may be difficult for us to adequately assess and could therefore reduce or eliminate our ability to pay dividends on our ordinary shares or have adverse effects on our liquidity or financial condition. A change in our asset acquisition strategy may also increase our exposure to interest rate, foreign currency or credit market fluctuations. In addition, a change in our asset acquisition strategy may increase our use of non-match-funded financing, increase the guarantee obligations we agree to incur or increase the number of transactions we enter into with affiliates. Our failure to accurately assess the risks inherent in new asset categories or the financing risks associated with such assets could adversely affect our results of operations and our financial condition.
Our Manager will not be liable to us for any acts or omissions performed in accordance with the Management Agreement, including with respect to the performance of our assets.
Pursuant to our Management Agreement, our Manager will not assume any responsibility other than to render the services called for thereunder in good faith and will not be responsible for any action of our board of directors in following or declining to follow its advice or recommendations. Our Manager, its members, managers, officers, employees, sub-advisers and any other person controlling or Manager, will not be liable to us or any of our subsidiaries, to our board of directors, or our or any subsidiary’s shareholders or partners for any acts or omissions by our Manager, its members, managers, officers, employees, sub-advisers and any other person controlling or Manager, except liability to us, our shareholders, directors, officers and employees and persons controlling us, by reason of acts constituting bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement. We will, to the full extent lawful, reimburse, indemnify and hold our Manager, its members, managers, officers and employees, sub-advisers and each other person, if any, controlling our Manager harmless of and from any and all expenses, losses, damages, liabilities, demands, charges and claims of any nature whatsoever (including attorneys’ fees) in respect of or arising from any acts or omissions of an indemnified party made in good faith in the performance of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement and not constituting such indemnified party’s bad faith, willful misconduct, gross negligence or reckless disregard of our Manager’s duties under our Management Agreement.
Our Manager’s due diligence of potential asset acquisitions or other transactions may not identify all pertinent risks, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our Manager intends to conduct due diligence with respect to each asset acquisition opportunity or other transaction it pursues. It is possible, however, that our Manager’s due diligence processes will not uncover all relevant facts, particularly with respect to any assets we acquire from third parties. In these cases, our Manager may be given limited access to information about the asset and will rely on information provided by the seller of the asset. In addition, if asset acquisition opportunities are scarce, the process for selecting bidders is competitive, or the timeframe in which we are required to complete diligence is short, our ability to conduct a due diligence investigation may be limited, and we would be required to make decisions based upon a less thorough diligence process than would otherwise be the case. Accordingly, transactions that initially appear to be viable may prove not to be over time, due to the limitations of the due diligence process or other factors.
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Risks Related to Taxation
We expect the Company to be a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) and it could be a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which may result in adverse tax considerations for U.S. shareholders.
We expect the Company to be treated as a PFIC and it could be treated as a CFC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If you are a U.S. person and do not make a valid qualified electing fund (“QEF”) election with respect to us and each of our PFIC subsidiaries, then, unless we are a CFC and you own 10% or more of our shares (by vote or value), you would generally be subject to special deferred tax with respect to certain distributions on our shares, any gain realized on a disposition of our shares, and certain other events. The effect of this deferred tax could be materially adverse to you. Alternatively, if you are such a shareholder and make a valid QEF election for us and each of our PFIC subsidiaries, or if we are a CFC and you own 10% or more of our shares (by vote or value), you will generally not be subject to those taxes, but could recognize taxable income in a taxable year with respect to our shares in excess of any distributions that we make to you in that year, thus giving rise to so called “phantom income” and to a potential out-of-pocket tax liability. No assurances can be given that any given shareholder will be able to make a valid QEF election with respect to us or our PFIC subsidiaries. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations —Considerations for U.S. Holders—PFIC Status and Related Tax Considerations.”
Assuming we are a PFIC, distributions made by us to a U.S. person will generally not be eligible for taxation at reduced tax rates generally applicable to “qualified dividends” paid by certain U.S. corporations and “qualified foreign corporations” to individuals. The more favorable rates applicable to other corporate dividends could cause individuals to perceive investment in our shares to be relatively less attractive than investment in the shares of other corporations, which could adversely affect the value of our shares.
Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential impact of these rules on their investment in us.
To the extent we recognize income treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, we would be subject to U.S. federal income taxation on a net income basis, which could adversely affect our business and result in decreased cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
If we are treated as engaged in a trade or business in the United States, the portion of our net income, if any, that is “effectively connected” with such trade or business would be subject to U.S. federal income taxation at maximum corporate rates, currently 21%. In addition, we may be subject to an additional U.S. federal branch profits tax on our effectively connected earnings and profits at a rate of 30%. The imposition of such taxes could adversely affect our business and would result in decreased cash available for distribution to our shareholders. Although we (or one or more of our non-U.S. corporate subsidiaries) are expected to be treated as engaged in a U.S. trade or business, it is currently expected that only a small portion of our taxable income will be treated as effectively connected with such U.S. trade or business. However, no assurance can be given that the amount of effectively connected income will not be greater than currently expected, whether due to a change in our operations or otherwise.
If there is not sufficient trading in our shares, or if 50% of our shares are held by certain 5% shareholders, we could lose our eligibility for an exemption from U.S. federal income taxation on rental income from our aircraft or ships used in “international traffic” and could be subject to U.S. federal income taxation which would adversely affect our business and result in decreased cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
We expect that we will be eligible for an exemption under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), which provides an exemption from U.S. federal income taxation with respect to rental income derived from aircraft and ships used in international traffic by certain foreign corporations. No assurances can be given that we will continue to be eligible for this exemption as changes in our ownership or the amount of our shares that are traded could cause us to cease to be eligible for such exemption. To qualify for this exemption in respect of rental income, the lessor of the aircraft or ships must be organized in a country that grants a comparable exemption to U.S. lessors. The Cayman Islands and the Marshall Islands grant such exemptions. Additionally, certain other requirements must be satisfied. We can satisfy these requirements in any year if, for more than half the days of such year, our shares are primarily and regularly traded on a recognized exchange and certain shareholders, each of whom owns 5% or more of our shares (applying certain attribution rules), do not collectively own more than 50% of our shares. Our shares will be considered to be primarily and regularly traded on a recognized exchange in any year if: (i) the number of trades in our shares effected on such recognized stock exchanges exceed the number of our shares (or direct interests in our shares) that are traded during the year on all securities markets; (ii) trades in our shares are effected on such stock exchanges in more than de minimis quantities on at least 60 days during every calendar quarter in the year; and (iii) the aggregate number of our shares traded on such stock exchanges during the taxable year is at least 10% of the average number of our shares outstanding in that class during that year. If we were not eligible for the exemption under Section 883 of the Code, we expect that our U.S. source rental income would generally be subject to U.S. federal taxation, on a gross income basis, at a rate of not in excess of 4% as provided in Section 887 of the Code. If, contrary to expectations, we or certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries did not comply with certain administrative guidelines of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), such that 90% or more of the U.S. source rental income of the Company or any of such subsidiaries were attributable to the activities of personnel based in the United States (in the case of bareboat leases), or from “regularly scheduled transportation” as defined in such administrative guidelines (in the case of time charter leases), our, or such subsidiary’s, U.S. source rental income would be treated as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. In such case, such U.S. source rental income would be subject to U.S. federal income taxation at the maximum corporate rate as well as state and local taxation. In addition, the Company or such subsidiary would be subject to the U.S. federal branch profits tax on its effectively
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connected earnings and profits at a rate of 30%. The imposition of such taxes could adversely affect our business and would result in decreased cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
We or our subsidiaries may become subject to increased and/or unanticipated tax liabilities that may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Some of our subsidiaries are subject to income, withholding or other taxes in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions by reason of their jurisdiction of incorporation, activities and operations, where their assets are used or where the lessees of their assets (or others in possession of their assets) are located, and it is also possible that taxing authorities in any such jurisdictions could assert that we or our subsidiaries are subject to greater taxation than we currently face or otherwise anticipate. Further, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”) is conducting a project focused on base erosion and profit shifting in international structures, which seeks to establish certain international standards for taxing the worldwide income of multinational companies. In addition, the OECD is working on a “BEPS 2.0” initiative, which is aimed at (i) shifting taxing rights to the jurisdiction of the consumer and (ii) ensuring all companies pay a global minimum tax. On October 8, 2021, the OECD announced an agreement among over 140 countries delineating an implementation plan, on December 20, 2021, the OECD released model rules for the domestic implementation of a 15% global minimum tax, on December 15, 2022, the member states of the European Union unanimously voted to adopt the OECD’s minimum tax rules and phase them into national law, and on February 2, 2023 the OECD released technical guidance on the global minimum tax which was agreed by consensus of the BEPS 2.0 signatory jurisdictions. Numerous countries, including European Union member states, have enacted or are expected to enact minimum tax legislation to be effective as early as January 1, 2024, with additional elements of the minimum tax expected to be effective on or after January 1, 2025. Additionally, On December 27, 2023, Bermuda enacted a corporate tax regime with a 15% rate (the “Bermuda CIT”) and with requirements similar to those of the OECD’s minimum tax proposal. The Bermuda CIT will be effective for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2025 (see footnote 11 to our consolidated financial statements entitled “Income Taxes” included elsewhere in this Annual Report). As a result of these developments, the tax laws of certain countries in which we and our affiliates do business are expected to change (and could change on a retroactive basis) and certain of such changes are expected to increase our liabilities for taxes (and possibly interest and penalties) and therefore could harm our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial position. In addition, a portion of certain of our or our non-U.S. corporate subsidiaries’ income is treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business and is accordingly subject to U.S. federal income tax or may be subject to gross-basis U.S. withholding tax. It is possible that the IRS could assert that a greater portion of our or any such non-U.S. subsidiaries’ income is effectively connected income that should be subject to U.S. federal income tax or subject to withholding tax.
Risks Related to Our Shares
The market price and trading volume of our ordinary and preferred shares may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our shareholders.
The market price of our ordinary and preferred shares may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume in our ordinary and preferred shares may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our ordinary or preferred shares declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at or above your purchase price, if at all. The market price of our ordinary and preferred shares may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect our share price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our shares include:
a shift in our investor base;
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other comparable companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions or dispositions;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our ordinary shares;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating and share price performance of other comparable companies;
prevailing interest rates or rates of return being paid by other comparable companies and the market for securities similar to our preferred shares;
additional issuances of preferred shares;
whether we declare distributions on our preferred shares;
overall market fluctuations;
general economic conditions; and
developments in the markets and market sectors in which we participate.
Stock markets in the United States have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Market fluctuations, as well as general political and economic conditions, such as acts of terrorism, prolonged economic uncertainty, a recession or interest rate or currency rate fluctuations, could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary and preferred shares.
An increase in market interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our shares.
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One of the factors that investors may consider in deciding whether to buy or sell our shares is our distribution rate as a percentage of our share price relative to market interest rates. If the market price of our shares is based primarily on the earnings and return that we derive from our investments and income with respect to our investments and our related distributions to shareholders, and not from the market value of the investments themselves, then interest rate fluctuations and capital market conditions will likely affect the market price of our shares. For instance, if market interest rates rise without an increase in our distribution rate, the market price of our shares could decrease, as potential investors may require a higher distribution yield on our shares or seek other securities paying higher distributions or interest. In addition, rising interest rates would result in increased interest expense on our outstanding and future (variable and fixed) rate debt, thereby adversely affecting cash flows and our ability to service our indebtedness and pay distributions.
We are required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls, and the outcome of that effort may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
As a public company, we are required to comply with Section 404 (“Section 404”) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Section 404 requires that we evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at the end of each fiscal year and to include a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for that fiscal year. Section 404 also requires an independent registered public accounting firm to attest to, and report on, management’s assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting. The outcome of our review and the report of our independent registered public accounting firm may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. During the course of our review, we may identify control deficiencies of varying degrees of severity, and we may incur significant costs to remediate those deficiencies or otherwise improve our internal controls. As a public company, we are required to report control deficiencies that constitute a “material weakness” in our internal control over financial reporting. If we discover a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, our share price could decline and our ability to raise capital could be impaired.
Your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future.
Your percentage ownership in FTAI Aviation Ltd. may be diluted in the future because of equity awards granted and may be granted to our Manager pursuant to the Management Agreement and the Incentive Plan. Since 2015, we granted our Manager an option to acquire 3,903,010 ordinary shares in connection with equity offerings. In the future, upon the successful completion of additional offerings of our ordinary shares or other equity securities (including securities issued as consideration in an acquisition), we will grant to our Manager options to purchase ordinary shares in an amount equal to 10% of the number of ordinary shares being sold in such offerings (or if the issuance relates to equity securities other than our ordinary shares, options to purchase a number of ordinary shares equal to 10% of the gross capital raised in the equity issuance divided by the fair market value of an ordinary share as of the date of the issuance), with an exercise price equal to the offering price per share paid by the public or other ultimate purchaser or attributed to such securities in connection with an acquisition (or the fair market value of an ordinary share as of the date of the equity issuance if it relates to equity securities other than our ordinary shares), and any such offering or the exercise of the option in connection with such offering would cause dilution.
Our board of directors has adopted the Incentive Plan, which provides for the grant of equity-based awards, including restricted shares, stock options, stock appreciation rights, performance awards, restricted share units, tandem awards and other equity-based and non-equity based awards, in each case to our Manager, to the directors, officers, employees, service providers, consultants and advisors of our Manager who perform services for us, and to our directors, officers, employees, service providers, consultants and advisors. We have initially reserved 30,000,000 ordinary shares for issuance under the Incentive Plan. As of December 31, 2023, rights relating to 616,177 of our ordinary shares were outstanding under the Incentive Plan. In the future on the date of any equity issuance by us during the remaining portion of the ten-year term of the Incentive Plan (including in respect of securities issued as consideration in an acquisition), the maximum number of shares available for issuance under the Plan will be increased to include an additional number of ordinary shares equal to ten percent (10%) of either (i) the total number of ordinary shares newly issued by us in such equity issuance or (ii) if such equity issuance relates to equity securities other than our ordinary shares, a number of our ordinary shares equal to 10% of (A) the gross capital raised in an equity issuance of equity securities other than ordinary shares during the ten-year term of the Incentive Plan, divided by (B) the fair market value of an ordinary share as of the date of such equity issuance.
Sales or issuances of our ordinary shares could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
Sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales might occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares. The issuance of our ordinary shares in connection with property, portfolio or business acquisitions or the exercise of outstanding options or otherwise could also have an adverse effect on the market price of our ordinary shares.
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The incurrence or issuance of debt, which ranks senior to our ordinary shares upon our liquidation, and future issuances of equity or equity-related securities, which would dilute the holdings of our existing ordinary shareholders and may be senior to our ordinary shares for the purposes of making distributions, periodically or upon liquidation, may negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
We have incurred and may in the future incur or issue debt or issue equity or equity-related securities to finance our operations, acquisitions or investments. Upon our liquidation, lenders and holders of our debt and holders of our preferred shares (if any) would receive a distribution of our available assets before ordinary shareholders. Any future incurrence or issuance of debt would increase our interest cost and could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. We are not required to offer any additional equity securities to existing ordinary shareholders on a preemptive basis. Therefore, additional issuances of ordinary shares, directly or through convertible or exchangeable securities warrants or options, will dilute the holdings of our existing ordinary shareholders and such issuances, or the perception of such issuances, may reduce the market price of our ordinary shares. Any preferred shares issued by us would likely have a preference on distribution payments, periodically or upon liquidation, which could eliminate or otherwise limit our ability to make distributions to ordinary shareholders. Because our decision to incur or issue debt or issue equity or equity-related securities in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. Thus, ordinary shareholders bear the risk that our future incurrence or issuance of debt or issuance of equity or equity-related securities will adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
Our determination of how much leverage to use to finance our acquisitions may adversely affect our return on our assets and may reduce funds available for distribution.
We utilize leverage to finance many of our asset acquisitions, which entitles certain lenders to cash flows prior to retaining a return on our assets. While our Manager targets using only what we believe to be reasonable leverage, our strategy does not limit the amount of leverage we may incur with respect to any specific asset. The return we are able to earn on our assets and funds available for distribution to our shareholders may be significantly reduced due to changes in market conditions, which may cause the cost of our financing to increase relative to the income that can be derived from our assets.
While we currently intend to pay regular quarterly dividends to our shareholders, we may change our dividend policy at any time.
Although we currently intend to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of our ordinary shares, we may change our dividend policy at any time. Our net cash provided by operating activities has been less than the amount of distributions to our shareholders. The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our ordinary shares are at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including actual results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, net cash provided by operating activities, restrictions imposed by applicable law, our taxable income, our operating expenses and other factors our board of directors deem relevant. There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay dividends in amounts or on a basis consistent with prior distributions to our investors, if at all. Because we are a holding company and have no direct operations, we will only be able to pay dividends from our available cash on hand and any funds we receive from our subsidiaries. Our indirect intermediate holding company subsidiary FTAI LLC is currently, and may in the future be, subject to certain covenants included in its financing agreements that limit its ability to make distributions to us. In addition, our existing indebtedness does, and our future indebtedness may, limit our ability to pay dividends on our ordinary and preferred shares. Moreover, pursuant to the Services and Profit Sharing Agreement, Master GP is entitled to receive incentive payments before any amounts are distributed by us based both on our consolidated net income and capital gains income in each fiscal quarter and for each fiscal year, respectively. Furthermore, the terms of our preferred shares generally prevent us from declaring or paying dividends on or repurchasing our ordinary shares or other junior capital unless all accrued distributions on such preferred shares have been paid in full.
Anti-takeover provisions in our Articles could delay or prevent a change in control.
Provisions in our Articles may make it more difficult and expensive for a third party to acquire control of us even if a change of control would be beneficial to the interests of our shareholders. For example, our Articles provides for a staggered board, requires advance notice for proposals by shareholders and nominations, places limitations on convening shareholder meetings, and authorizes the issuance of preferred shares that could be issued by our board of directors to thwart a takeover attempt. The market price of our shares could be adversely affected to the extent that provisions of our operating agreement discourage potential takeover attempts that our shareholders may favor.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade their recommendations regarding our ordinary shares, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our ordinary shares are influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If any of the analysts who cover us downgrades our ordinary units or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our ordinary share price may decline. If analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our ordinary share price or trading volume to decline and our ordinary shares to be less liquid.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
We have no unresolved staff comments.
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Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Risk Management and Strategy
The Company’s cybersecurity is overseen by the Chief Executive Officer, who receives reports directly from other officers and individuals who perform services for the Company, including, but not limited to, the Manager’s Information Security Steering Committee (“ISSC”), employing a risk-based methodology designed to safeguard the security, confidentiality, integrity, and availability of its information. The ISSC is tasked with developing an effective cyber strategy, establishing policies, and managing cyber risks within the organization. The Manager’s Chief Financial Officer and General Counsel, along with the Chief Operating Officer, Chief Human Resources Officer, Chief Compliance Officer, Chief Technology Officer, Chief Information Security Officer and Chief of Intelligence collaborate with the Company’s Chief Financial Officer to formulate, implement, and enforce these policies. They help ensure that the ISSC considers best practices in its decision-making, and convenes quarterly or as needed to assess cybersecurity issues and supervise matters related to information security, fraud, vendors, data protection, and privacy risks.
To help identify and assess risks, we and our Manager engage third-party advisors, leveraging standards such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology security framework (“NIST”). The results of these assessments inform the development of cybersecurity controls and risk mitigation strategies, which are then implemented throughout the Company.
We have taken proactive measures intended to minimize the likelihood of successful cyberattacks, including the establishment of incident response procedures designed to address potential cyber threats that may arise. These response procedures are structured with the aim to identify, analyze, contain, and remediate any cyber incidents that occur. We also have risk management processes to oversee and help identify risks from cybersecurity threats associated with our use of third-party providers.
To date, cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have not materially affected and we believe are not reasonably likely to affect the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. Refer to the risk factor captioned “A cyberattack that bypasses our information technology (“IT”), security systems or the IT security systems of our third-party providers, causing an IT security breach, may lead to a disruption of our IT systems and the loss of business information which may hinder our ability to conduct our business effectively and may result in lost revenues and additional costs.” in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for additional description of cybersecurity risks and potential related impacts on the Company.
Governance
Material risks are identified and prioritized by management, and material risks are discussed periodically or as needed with the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors regularly reviews information regarding the Company’s credit, liquidity and operations, including risks and contingencies associated with each area, including cybersecurity. In addition to the formal compliance program, the Board of Directors encourages management to promote a corporate culture that incorporates risk management into the Company’s corporate strategy and day-to-day business operations.
Item 2. Properties
An affiliate of our Manager leases principal executive offices at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10105. We also lease office space from an affiliate of our Manager in Ireland and Dubai. Additionally, our aviation leasing business and offshore energy business lease office space in New York, Florida, Wales and Singapore, respectively, and we own and/or lease maintenance facilities in Florida and Canada for our aerospace products business. We believe that our office facilities and properties are suitable and adequate for our business as it is contemplated to be conducted.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are and may become involved in legal proceedings, including but not limited to regulatory investigations and inquiries, in the ordinary course of our business. Although we are unable to predict with certainty the eventual outcome of any litigation, regulatory investigation or inquiry, in the opinion of management, we do not expect our current and any threatened legal proceedings to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations. Given the inherent unpredictability of these types of proceedings, however, it is possible that future adverse outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our ordinary shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the ticker symbol “FTAI”. As of February 22, 2024, there were approximately 14 record holders of our ordinary shares. This figure does not reflect the beneficial ownership of shares held in nominee name.
Although we currently intend to continue to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of our ordinary shares, we may change our dividend policy at any time and no assurances can be given that any future dividends will be paid or, if paid, as to the amounts or timing. The declaration and payment of dividends to holders of our ordinary shares will be at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including actual results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, net cash provided by operating activities, restrictions imposed by applicable law, our taxable income, our operating expenses and other factors our board of directors deem relevant. In addition, our existing indebtedness does, and our future indebtedness may, limit our ability to pay dividends on our ordinary and preferred shares.
On February 22, 2024, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend on our ordinary shares of $0.30 per share for the quarter ended December 31, 2023, payable on March 20, 2024 to the holders of record on March 8, 2024.
Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan
In 2015, in connection with our IPO, we established a Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan (“Incentive Plan”) referred to then as the Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan, which provides for the ability to award equity compensation awards in the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, and performance awards to eligible employees, consultants, directors, and other individuals who provide services to us, each as determined by the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors. On November 10, 2022, in connection with the Merger, the Incentive Plan was assumed by FTAI Aviation Ltd. and renamed the FTAI Aviation Ltd. Nonqualified Stock Option and Incentive Award Plan, and on February 23, 2023, the Incentive Plan was amended to provide for the ability to award equity compensation awards in the form of restricted stock units in addition to the other forms of award described above. As of December 31, 2023, the Incentive Plan provides for the issuance of up to 29.8 million shares.

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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total return for our ordinary shares (share price change plus reinvested dividends) with the comparable return of three indices: S&P Mid Cap 400, Russell 2000, and Dow Jones US Transportation Services. The graph assumes an investment of $100 in our ordinary shares and in each of the indices on December 31, 2018, and that all dividends were reinvested. The past performance of our shares is not an indication of future performance.
COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among FTAI Aviation Ltd., the S&P Midcap 400 Index, the Russell 2000 Index and the Dow Jones US Transportation Services Index
3830

*$100 each invested on December 31, 2018 in stock and index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ending December 31.

(in whole dollars)December 31,
Index201820192020202120222023
FTAI Aviation Ltd.$100.00 $149.92 $204.40 $266.34 $198.57 $559.43 
S&P Midcap 400100.00 126.20 143.44 178.95 155.58 181.15 
Russell 2000100.00 125.52 150.58 172.90 137.56 160.85 
Dow Jones US Transportation Services100.00 135.60 162.47 243.23 148.16 194.36 

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Item 6. [Reserved]

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help you understand FTAI Aviation Ltd. Our MD&A should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, and with Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
A discussion of our cash flows for 2022 compared to 2021 is included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, under Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Overview
We own, lease and sell aviation equipment. We also develop and manufacture through a joint venture, and repair and sell, through our maintenance facility and exclusivity arrangements, aftermarket components for aircraft engines. Additionally, we own and lease offshore energy equipment. We target assets that, on a combined basis, generate strong cash flows with potential for earnings growth and asset appreciation. We believe that there is a large number of acquisition opportunities in our markets and that our Manager’s expertise and business and financing relationships, together with our access to capital, will allow us to take advantage of these opportunities. We are externally managed by FIG LLC (the “Manager”), an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”), which has a dedicated team of experienced professionals focused on the acquisition of transportation assets since 2002. As of December 31, 2023, we had total consolidated assets of $3.0 billion and total equity of $175.9 million.
Impact of Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine
Economic sanctions and export controls against Russia and Russia’s aviation industry were imposed due to its invasion of Ukraine during the three months ended March 31, 2022. As a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines, we terminated all lease agreements with Russian airlines. We determined that it is unlikely that we will regain possession of the aircraft and engines that had not yet been recovered from Ukraine and Russia. As a result, we recognized an impairment charge totaling $120.0 million, net of maintenance deposits for the year ended December 31, 2022, to write-off the entire carrying value of leasing equipment assets that we did not expect to recover from Ukraine and Russia. As of December 31, 2023, eight aircraft and seventeen engines were still located in Russia.
Our lessees are required to provide insurance coverage with respect to leased aircraft and engines, and we are named as insureds under those policies in the event of a total loss of an aircraft or engine. We also purchase insurance which provides us with coverage when our aircraft or engines are not subject to a lease or where a lessee’s policy fails to indemnify us. The insured value of the aircraft and engines that remain in Russia is approximately $210.7 million. We intend to pursue all our claims under these policies. However, the timing and amount of any recoveries under these policies are uncertain.
The extent of the impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the related sanctions on our operational and financial performance, including the ability for us to recover our leasing equipment in the region, will depend on future developments, including the duration of the conflict, sanctions and restrictions imposed by Russian and international governments, all of which remain uncertain.
Spin-Off of FTAI Infrastructure Inc. (“FTAI Infrastructure”)
On August 1, 2022, Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC (“we”, “us”, “our”, “FTAI” or the “Company” pre-Merger, as defined below, and FTAI Aviation Ltd. post-Merger) effected a spin-off of the Company’s infrastructure business held by FTAI Infrastructure (a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company) as a distribution of all of the shares owned by the Company of common stock of FTAI Infrastructure to the holders of the Company’s ordinary shares as of July 21, 2022.
FTAI Infrastructure is a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and holds, among other things, the Company’s previously held interests in the (i) Jefferson Terminal business, (ii) Repauno business, (iii) Long Ridge investment, and (iv) Transtar business. FTAI Infrastructure retained all related project-level debt of those entities. In connection with the spin-off, FTAI Infrastructure paid a dividend of $730.3 million to the Company. The Company used these proceeds to repay all outstanding borrowings under its 2021 bridge loans, $200.0 million of its 6.50% senior unsecured notes due 2025, and approximately $175.0 million of the outstanding borrowings under its revolving credit facility. FTAI retained the aviation business and certain other assets, and FTAI’s remaining outstanding corporate indebtedness.
In connection with the spin-off, the Company and the Manager assigned the Company’s then-existing management agreement to FTAI Infrastructure, and FTAI Infrastructure and the Manager executed an amended and restated agreement. The Company and certain of its subsidiaries executed a new management agreement with the Manager. The new management agreement has an initial term of six years. The Manager is entitled to a management fee and reimbursement of certain expenses on substantially similar terms as the previous arrangements with the Manager, which were assigned to FTAI Infrastructure. Prior to the Merger described below, our Manager remained entitled to incentive allocations (comprised of income incentive allocation and capital gains incentive allocation) on the same terms as they existed prior to spin-off. Following the Merger, the Company entered into a Services and Profit Sharing Agreement (the “Services and Profit Sharing Agreement”), with a subsidiary of the Company and
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Fortress Worldwide Transportation and Infrastructure Master GP LLC (“Master GP”), pursuant to which Master GP is entitled to incentive payments on substantially similar terms as the previous arrangements.
On November 10, 2022, the Company completed the transactions set forth in the Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger”) between Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC (“FTAI”) and FTAI Aviation Ltd. (“FTAI Aviation”) and certain other parties, with FTAI becoming a subsidiary of the Company. As a result of the merger, the FTAI became a Cayman Islands exempted company. Upon merger completion, Fortress Transportation and Infrastructure Investors LLC public common shareholders’ shares of the Company were exchanged automatically for shares of FTAI Aviation Ltd. without any further action from the shareholders.
Operating Segments
The key factors used to identify the reportable segments are the organization and alignment of our internal operations and the nature of our products and services. Our two reportable segments are (i) Aviation Leasing and (ii) Aerospace Products. The Aviation Leasing segment owns and manages aviation assets, including aircraft and aircraft engines, which it leases and sells to customers. The Aerospace Products segment develops and manufactures through a joint venture, repairs and sells, through our maintenance facility and exclusivity arrangements, aircraft engines and aftermarket components for aircraft engines. During the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company changed the composition of its operating segments to include product offerings for V2500 engines within the Aerospace Products segment. Prior periods have been restated to reflect the change in accordance with the requirements of ASC 280, Segment Reporting. See Note 2 for additional information.

Corporate and Other primarily consists of debt, unallocated corporate general and administrative expenses, shared services costs, and management fees. Additionally, Corporate and Other also includes offshore energy related assets, which consist of vessels and equipment that support offshore oil and gas activities and production which are typically subject to operating leases.
Our Manager
On May 22, 2023, Fortress and Mubadala Investment Company, through its wholly owned asset management subsidiary Mubadala Capital (“Mubadala”), announced that they have entered into definitive agreements pursuant to which, among other things, certain members of Fortress management and affiliates of Mubadala will acquire 100% of the equity of Fortress that is currently indirectly held by SoftBank Group Corp. (“SoftBank”). After the closing of the transaction, Fortress will continue to operate as an independent investment manager under the Fortress brand, with autonomy over investment processes and decision making, personnel and operations.

Results of Operations  
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
The chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) utilizes Adjusted EBITDA as the key performance measure. Adjusted EBITDA is not a financial measure in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). This performance measure provides the CODM with the information necessary to assess operational performance and make resource and allocation decisions. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is a useful metric for investors and analysts for similar purposes of assessing our operational performance.
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) attributable to shareholders from continuing operations, adjusted (a) to exclude the impact of provision for (benefit from) income taxes, equity-based compensation expense, acquisition and transaction expenses, losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations, changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments, asset impairment charges, incentive allocations, depreciation and amortization expense, dividends on preferred shares and interest expense, (b) to include the impact of our pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities and (c) to exclude the impact of equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated entities and the non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA.


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The following table presents our consolidated results of operations:

Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Revenues
Lease income$207,936 $179,314 $173,864 $28,622 $5,450 
Maintenance revenue191,347 148,846 128,819 42,501 20,027 
Asset sales revenue303,141 183,535 — 119,606 183,535 
Aerospace products revenue454,970 178,515 23,301 276,455 155,214 
Other revenue13,502 18,201 9,599 (4,699)8,602 
Total revenues1,170,896 708,411 335,583 462,485 372,828 
Expenses
Cost of sales502,132 248,385 14,308 253,747 234,077 
Operating expenses110,163 132,264 59,615 (22,101)72,649 
General and administrative13,700 14,164 13,448 (464)716 
Acquisition and transaction expenses15,194 13,207 17,911 1,987 (4,704)
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate18,037 3,562 684 14,475 2,878 
Depreciation and amortization169,877 152,917 147,740 16,960 5,177 
Asset impairment2,121 137,219 10,463 (135,098)126,756 
Interest expense161,639 169,194 155,017 (7,555)14,177 
Total expenses992,863 870,912 419,186 121,951 451,726 
Other income (expense)
Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities(1,606)(369)(1,403)(1,237)1,034 
Gain on sale of assets, net 77,211 49,015 (77,211)28,196 
Loss on extinguishment of debt (19,859)(3,254)19,859 (16,605)
Other income (expense)7,590 207 (490)7,383 697 
Total other income5,984 57,190 43,868 (51,206)13,322 
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes184,017 (105,311)(39,735)289,328 (65,576)
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(59,800)5,300 3,126 (65,100)2,174 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations243,817 (110,611)(42,861)354,428 (67,750)
Net loss from discontinued operations, net of income taxes (101,416)(87,845)101,416 (13,571)
Net income (loss)243,817 (212,027)(130,706)455,844 (81,321)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest in consolidated subsidiaries:
Continuing operations — — — — 
Discontinued operations (18,817)(26,472)18,817 7,655 
Less: Dividends on preferred shares31,795 27,164 24,758 4,631 2,406 
Net income (loss) attributable to shareholders$212,022 $(220,374)$(128,992)$432,396 $(91,382)

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The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income (loss) attributable to shareholders from continuing operations to Adjusted EBITDA:

Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Net income (loss) attributable to shareholders from continuing operations$212,022 $(137,775)$(67,619)$349,797 $(70,156)
Add: (Benefit from) provision for income taxes(59,800)5,300 3,126 (65,100)2,174 
Add: Equity-based compensation expense1,638 — — 1,638 — 
Add: Acquisition and transaction expenses15,194 13,207 17,911 1,987 (4,704)
Add: Losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations 19,859 3,254 (19,859)16,605 
Add: Changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments — — — — 
Add: Asset impairment charges2,121 137,219 10,463 (135,098)126,756 
Add: Incentive allocations17,116 3,489 — 13,627 3,489 
Add: Depreciation & amortization expense (1)
213,641 190,031 175,718 23,610 14,313 
Add: Interest expense and dividends on preferred shares193,434 196,358 179,775 (2,924)16,583 
Add: Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities (2)
310 40 (1,203)270 1,243 
Less: Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities1,606 369 1,403 1,237 (1,034)
Less: Non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA — — — — 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$597,282 $428,097 $322,828 $169,185 $105,269 
__________________________________________________

(1) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021: (i) depreciation and amortization expense of $169,877, $152,917 and $147,740, (ii) lease intangible amortization of $15,126, $13,913 and $4,993 and (iii) amortization for lease incentives of $28,638, $23,201 and $22,985, respectively.
(2) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021: (i) net loss of $1,606, $369 and $1,403, (ii) depreciation and amortization expense of $1,488, $409 and $200 and (iii) acquisition and transaction expense of $428, $0 and $0, respectively.
Revenues
Presentation of assets sales
During the third quarter of 2022, we updated our corporate strategy based on the opportunities available in the market such that the sale of aircraft and engines is now an output of our recurring, ordinary activities. As a result of this update, the transaction price allocated to the sale of assets is included in Revenues in the Consolidated Statement of Operations beginning in the third quarter of 2022 and is accounted for in accordance with ASC 606. The corresponding net book values of the assets sold are recorded in Cost of sales in the Consolidated Statement of Operations beginning in the third quarter of 2022. Sales transactions of aircraft and engines prior to the third quarter of 2022 were accounted for in accordance with ASC 610-20, Gains and losses from the derecognition of nonfinancial assets and were included in Gain (loss) on sale of assets, net on the Consolidated Statement of Operations, as we were previously only occasionally selling these assets. Generally, assets sold were included in Leasing equipment, net, on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Total revenues increased $462.5 million, primarily due to an increase in Aerospace Products revenue, Asset sales revenue, maintenance revenue and lease income.
Aerospace Products revenue increased $276.5 million driven by an increase in sales relating to the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 engines, engine modules, spare parts and used material inventory as operations continued to ramp-up in 2023. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Asset sales revenue increased $119.6 million primarily due to an increase in the sale of commercial aircraft and engines in our Aviation Leasing segment during 2023. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Lease income increased $28.6 million primarily due to an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease during the year and an increase in the Offshore Energy business as one of our vessels was on-hire longer in 2023 compared to 2022 and at higher rates.
Maintenance revenue increased $42.5 million primarily due to the recognition of maintenance deposits due to the early redelivery of five aircraft, an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease, higher aircraft and engine utilization and higher end-of-lease return compensation.
34


Other revenue decreased $4.7 million primarily due to a decrease in end-of-lease redelivery compensation.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $122.0 million primarily due to higher (i) cost of sales, (ii) management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate and(iii) depreciation and amortization, partially offset by lower (iv) asset impairment, (v) operating expenses and (vi) interest expense.
Cost of sales increased $253.7 million primarily as a result of an increase in asset sales and Aerospace Product sales and the gross presentation of Asset sales revenue and Aerospace products revenues as described above.
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate increased $14.5 million primarily due to an increase in incentive fee due to the Manager driven by an increase in net income.
Depreciation and amortization increased $17.0 million primarily driven by an increase in the number of assets owned and on lease, partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft redelivered and parted out into our engine leasing pool.
Asset impairment decreased $135.1 million primarily due to the 2022 write down of aircraft and engines located in Russia and Ukraine that were deemed not recoverable. See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Operating expenses decreased $22.1 million primarily due to:
an decrease of $43.4 million in the Aviation Leasing segment primarily as a result of decrease in provision for credit losses as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines in 2022, shipping and storage fees and repairs and maintenance expenses, partially offset by increases in insurance expenses.
an increase of $12.8 million in the Offshore Energy business which reflects increases in offshore crew expenses, project costs and other operating expenses as our vessels were on-hire longer in 2023 compared to 2022.
an increase of $8.5 million in the Aerospace Products segment primarily due to an increase in commission expenses due to the increase in sales from the used material program as well as an increase in shipping and storage fees as operations continued to ramp-up in 2023.
Interest expense decreased $7.6 million, which reflects a decrease in the average outstanding debt of approximately $183.8 million primarily due to decreases in (i) the 2021 Bridge Loans of $178.3 million and (ii) the Senior Notes due 2025 of $116.7 million, which were partially redeemed in August 2022, partially offset by increases in (iii) the Revolving Credit Facility of $28.7 million and (iv) the Senior Notes due 2030 of $82.8 million, which were issued in November 2023.
Other income (expense)
Total other income decreased $51.2 million primarily due to (i) a decrease of $77.2 million in Gain on sale of assets, net in the Aviation Leasing and Aerospace Products segments due to the change in presentation of asset sales described above, partially offset by (ii) Loss on extinguishment of debt of $19.9 million recognized during 2022 related to the pay-down of the 2021 Bridge Loan issued in December 2021 and February 2022 and the partial redemption of Senior Notes due 2025.
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
The benefit from income taxes increased $65.1 million primarily due to the Company establishing a deferred tax asset of $72.2 million in connection with a tax law change in Bermuda, which was recorded as a benefit from income taxes during the fourth quarter of 2023. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
Net income from continuing operations increased $354.4 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Net loss from discontinued operations
Net loss from discontinued operations decreased $101.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the prior year as these businesses have spun off and there is no corresponding activity in the current period.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $169.2 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Total revenues increased $372.8 million, primarily due to an increase in Asset sales revenue, Aerospace Products revenue, maintenance revenue and other revenue.
35


Asset sales revenue increased $183.5 million primarily due to an increase in the sale of commercial aircraft and engines in our Aviation Leasing segment during 2022. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Aerospace Products revenue increased $155.2 million driven by an increase in sales relating to the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 engines, engine modules, spare parts and used material inventory as operations ramped up in 2022. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Maintenance revenue increased $20.0 million primarily due to an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease, higher aircraft and engine utilization and higher end-of-lease return compensation, partially offset by a decrease in the recognition of maintenance deposits due to the early redelivery of aircraft in the prior year and lower maintenance billings from early termination of aircraft leases with Russian airlines as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines during the first quarter of 2022.
Other revenue increased $8.6 million primarily due to an increase in end-of lease redelivery compensation.
Lease income decreased $5.5 million primarily due to a $4.7 million decrease in the Aviation leasing segment driven by the early termination of aircraft and engine leases as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines during the first quarter of 2022. Basic lease revenues from our owned aircraft and engines leased to Russian airlines was approximately $39.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease is partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease during the year, and a $10.1 million increase in the Offshore Energy business as two of our vessels were on-hire longer in 2022 compared to 2021.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $451.7 million primarily due to higher (i) cost of sales, (ii) asset impairment charges, (iii) operating expenses, (iv) interest expense, (v) depreciation and amortization, and (vi) management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate partially offset by lower (vii) acquisition and transaction expenses.
Cost of sales increased $234.1 million primarily as a result of an increase in asset sales and Aerospace Product sales and the gross presentation of asset sales revenue and Aerospace Product revenues as described above.
Asset impairment increased $126.8 million primarily due to the 2022 write down of aircraft and engines located in Russia and Ukraine that were deemed not recoverable. See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Operating expenses increased $72.6 million primarily due to:
an increase of $48.5 million in the Aviation Leasing segment primarily as a result of an increase in provision for credit losses as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines in 2022, and increases in insurance expense, shipping and storage fees, professional fees, and repairs and maintenance expenses.
an increase of $17.6 million in the Offshore Energy business which reflects increases in offshore crew expenses, project costs and other operating expenses as our vessels were on-hire longer in 2022 compared to 2021, as well as crane repairs on one of our vessels.
an increase of $6.5 million in the Aerospace Products segment primarily due to an increase in commission expenses due to the increase in sales from the used material program as well as an increase in professional fees and other operating expenses due to the ramp-up of Aerospace Products.
Interest expense increased $14.2 million, which reflects an increase in the average outstanding debt of approximately $354.7 million due to increases in (i) the Senior Notes due 2028 of $459.7 million, (ii) the 2021 Bridge Loans issued in December 2021 and February 2022 of $169.9 million and (iii) the Revolving Credit Facility of $49.7 million, partially offset by a decrease in (iv) the Bridge Loans of $108.3 million, (v) the Senior Notes due 2022 of $133.1 million, which was redeemed in full in May 2021, and (vi) the Senior Notes due 2025 of $83.2 million, which were partially redeemed in August 2022.
Depreciation and amortization increased $5.2 million primarily driven by an increase in the number of assets owned and on lease, partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft redelivered and parted out into our engine leasing pool.
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate increased $2.9 million primarily due to an increase in incentive fee due to the Manager.
Acquisition and transaction expenses decreased $4.7 million primarily due to a decrease in professional fees related to the Transtar acquisition in 2021.
Other income (expense)
Total other income increased $13.3 million primarily due to (i) an increase of $28.2 million in Gain on sale of assets, net in the Aviation Leasing and Aerospace Products segments from more opportunistic asset sales transactions, partially offset by (ii) an increase of $16.6 million in loss on extinguishment of debt primarily related to the 2022 paydown of the 2021 Bridge Loan and the partial redemption of the Senior Notes due 2025 in connection with the spin-off of FTAI Infrastructure. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales and impact on Gain on sales of assets, net.
Provision for income taxes
The provision for income taxes increased $2.2 million primarily due to a higher provision in the Aerospace Products segment.
36


Net loss from continuing operations
Net loss from continuing operations increased $67.8 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Net loss from discontinued operations
Net loss from discontinued operations increased $13.6 million primarily due to:
An increase in net loss of $34.7 million in the Ports and Terminals business in 2022 of which $32.6 million relates to our equity pick-up in net losses for the Long Ridge investment.
An increase in acquisition and transaction expense of $11.9 million during 2022 related to the spin-off of the infrastructure business;
Offset by a decrease in net loss of $22.6 million in the Jefferson business in 2022 which is primarily driven by seven months of activity during 2022 compared to a full year of activity in 2021; and
An increase in net income of $8.4 million on the Transtar business, which was acquired on July 28, 2021.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $105.3 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Aviation Leasing Segment
As of December 31, 2023, in our Aviation Leasing segment, we own and manage 363 aviation assets, consisting of 96 commercial aircraft and 267 engines, including eight aircraft and seventeen engines that were still located in Russia.
As of December 31, 2023, 76 of our commercial aircraft and 175 of our engines were leased to operators or other third parties. Aviation assets currently off lease are either undergoing repair and/or maintenance, being prepared to go on lease or held in short term storage awaiting a future lease. Our aviation equipment was approximately 77% utilized during the three months ended December 31, 2023, based on the percent of days on-lease in the quarter weighted by the monthly average equity value of our aviation leasing equipment, excluding airframes. Our aircraft currently have a weighted average remaining lease term of 47 months, and our engines currently on-lease have an average remaining lease term of 16 months. The table below provides additional information on the assets in our Aviation Leasing segment:
Aviation AssetsWidebodyNarrowbodyTotal
Aircraft
Assets at January 1, 20238 98 106 
Purchases— 40 40 
Sales(2)(11)(13)
Transfers(1)(36)(37)
Assets at December 31, 20235 91 96 
Engines
Assets at January 1, 202340 184 224 
Purchases94 101 
Sales(17)(24)(41)
Transfers(19)(17)
Assets at December 31, 202332 235 267 

37


The following table presents our results of operations for our Aviation Leasing segment:

Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Revenues
Lease income$179,704 $159,068 $163,733 $20,636 $(4,665)
Maintenance revenue191,347 148,846 128,819 42,501 20,027 
Asset sales revenue303,141 183,535 — 119,606 183,535 
Other revenue7,419 11,499 5,569 (4,080)5,930 
Total revenues681,611 502,948 298,121 178,663 204,827 
Expenses
Cost of sales221,852 138,904 — 82,948 138,904 
Operating expenses37,876 81,232 32,757 (43,356)48,475 
Acquisition and transaction expenses7,150 1,923 982 5,227 941 
Depreciation and amortization158,354 144,258 139,678 14,096 4,580 
Asset impairment2,121 137,219 10,463 (135,098)126,756 
Total expenses427,353 503,536 183,880 (76,183)319,656 
Other income (expense)
Equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated entities(148)740 — (888)740 
Gain on sale of assets, net 59,048 28,631 (59,048)30,417 
Other income (expense)1,300 246 (527)1,054 773 
Total other income1,152 60,034 28,104 (58,882)31,930 
Income before income taxes255,410 59,446 142,345 195,964 (82,899)
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(36,193)2,502 2,073 (38,695)429 
Net income291,603 56,944 140,272 234,659 (83,328)
Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest in consolidated subsidiaries — — — — 
Net income attributable to shareholders$291,603 $56,944 $140,272 $234,659 $(83,328)

38


The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income attributable to shareholders to Adjusted EBITDA:

Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Net income attributable to shareholders$291,603 $56,944 $140,272 $234,659 $(83,328)
Add: (Benefit from) provision for income taxes(36,193)2,502 2,073 (38,695)429 
Add: Equity-based compensation expense337 — — 337 — 
Add: Acquisition and transaction expenses7,150 1,923 982 5,227 941 
Add: Losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations — — — — 
Add: Changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments — — — — 
Add: Asset impairment charges2,121 137,219 10,463 (135,098)126,756 
Add: Incentive allocations — — — — 
Add: Depreciation and amortization expense (1)
202,118 181,372 167,656 20,746 13,716 
Add: Interest expense and dividends on preferred shares — — — — 
Add: Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities (2)
104 925 — (821)925 
Less: Equity in losses (earnings) of unconsolidated entities148 (740)— 888 (740)
Less: Non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA — — — — 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$467,388 $380,145 $321,446 $87,243 $58,699 
__________________________________________________
(1) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021: (i) depreciation expense of $158,354, $144,258 and $139,678, (ii) lease intangible amortization of $15,126, $13,913 and $4,993 and (iii) amortization for lease incentives of $28,638, $23,201 and $22,985, respectively.
(2) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021: (i) net (loss) income of $(148), $740 and $0 and (ii) depreciation and amortization of $252, $185 and $0, respectively.

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Revenues
Total revenues increased $178.7 million driven by an increase in asset sales revenue, maintenance revenue and lease income, partially offset by a decrease in other revenue.
Asset sales revenue increased $119.6 million primarily due to an increase in the sale of commercial aircraft and engines. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Maintenance revenue increased $42.5 million primarily due to the recognition of maintenance deposits due to the early redelivery of five aircraft, an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease, higher aircraft and engine utilization and higher end-of-lease return compensation.
Lease income increased $20.6 million primarily due to an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease during the year, partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft and engines redelivered.
Other revenue decreased $4.1 million primarily due to a decrease in end-of-lease redelivery compensation.
Expenses
Total expenses decreased $76.2 million primarily driven by a decrease in asset impairment and operating expenses, partially offset by an increase in cost of sales, depreciation and amortization and acquisition and transaction expenses.
39


Asset impairment decreased $135.1 million primarily due to the 2022 write down of aircraft and engines located in Russia and Ukraine that were deemed not recoverable. See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Operating expenses decreased $43.4 million primarily as a result of decreases in provision for credit losses as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines in 2022, shipping and storage fees and repairs and maintenance expenses, partially offset by an increase in insurance expense.
Cost of sales increased $82.9 million primarily as a result of an increase in asset sales and the gross presentation of asset sales revenues and related costs of sales as described above.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $14.1 million driven by an increase in the number of assets owned and on lease, partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft redelivered and parted out into our engine leasing pool.
Acquisition and transaction expenses increased $5.2 million driven by higher compensation and related costs associated with the acquisition of aviation leasing equipment.
Other income (expense)
Total other income decreased $58.9 million primarily due to a decrease of $59.0 million in Gain on sale of assets, net due to the change in presentation of asset sales.
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
The benefit from income taxes increased $38.7 million primarily due to the Company establishing a deferred tax asset of $46.6 million in connection with a tax law change in Bermuda, which was recorded as a benefit from income taxes during the fourth quarter of 2023. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $87.2 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenues
Total revenues increased $204.8 million driven by an increase in asset sales revenue, maintenance revenue and other revenue, partially offset by a decrease in lease income.
Asset sales revenue increased $183.5 million primarily due to an increase in the sale of commercial aircraft and engines during 2022. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Maintenance revenue increased $20.0 million primarily due to an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease, higher aircraft and engine utilization and higher end-of-lease return compensation, partially offset by a decrease in the recognition of maintenance deposits due to the early redelivery of aircraft in the prior year and lower maintenance billings from the early termination of aircraft leases with Russian airlines as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines during the first quarter of 2022.
Other revenue increased $5.9 million primarily due to an increase in end-of-lease redelivery compensation.
Lease income decreased $4.7 million primarily due to the early termination of aircraft and engine leases as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines during the first quarter of 2022. Basic lease revenues from our owned aircraft and engines leased to Russian airlines was approximately $39.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease is partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft and engines placed on lease during the year.
Expenses
40


Total expenses increased $319.7 million primarily driven by an increase in cost of sales, asset impairment, operating expenses and depreciation and amortization expense.
Cost of sales increased $138.9 million primarily as a result of an increase in asset sales and the gross presentation of asset sales revenues and related costs of sales as described above.
Asset impairment increased $126.8 million primarily due to the 2022 write down of aircraft and engines located in Russia and Ukraine that were deemed not recoverable. See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Operating expenses increased $48.5 million primarily as a result of an increase in provision for credit losses as a result of the sanctions imposed on Russian airlines in 2022, and increases in insurance expense, shipping and storage fees, professional fees, and repairs and maintenance expenses.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $4.6 million driven by an increase in the number of assets owned and on lease, partially offset by an increase in the number of aircraft redelivered and parted out into our engine leasing pool.
Other income (expense)
Total other income increased $31.9 million primarily due to an increase of $30.4 million in Gain on the sale of assets, net due to more opportunistic sales transactions.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $58.7 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
Aerospace Products Segment
The Aerospace Products segment develops and manufactures through a joint venture, repairs and sells, through our maintenance facility and exclusivity arrangements, aircraft engines and aftermarket components primarily for the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 commercial aircraft engines. Our engine and module sales are facilitated through The Module Factory, a dedicated commercial maintenance program, designed to focus on modular repair and refurbishment of CFM56-7B and CFM56-5B engines, performed by a third party. Used serviceable material is sold through our exclusive partnership with AAR Corp, who is responsible for the teardown, repair, marketing and sales of spare parts from our CFM56 engine pool. In December 2023, we acquired the remaining interest in Quick Turn Engine Center LLC or “QuickTurn” (previously iAero Thrust LLC), a hospital maintenance and testing facility dedicated to the CFM56 engine. Refer to Note 4 “Acquisition of QuickTurn”, for additional information. We also hold a 25% interest in the Advanced Engine Repair JV which focuses on developing new cost savings programs for engine repairs.
The following table presents our results of operations:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Aerospace products revenue$454,970 $178,515 $23,301 $276,455 $155,214 
Expenses
Cost of sales280,280 109,481 14,308 170,799 95,173 
Operating expenses20,459 11,967 5,429 8,492 6,538 
Acquisition and transaction expenses1,722 243 — 1,479 243 
Depreciation and amortization661 258 66 403 192 
Total expenses303,122 121,949 19,803 181,173 102,146 
Other income (expense)
Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities(1,458)(1,109)(1,403)(349)294 
Gain on sale of assets, net 18,163 20,384 (18,163)(2,221)
Other income 5,347 — — 5,347 — 
Total other income3,889 17,054 18,981 (13,165)(1,927)
Income before income taxes155,737 73,620 22,479 82,117 51,141 
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(24,440)2,961 1,135 (27,401)1,826 
Net income180,177 70,659 21,344 109,518 49,315 
Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest in consolidated subsidiaries — — — — 
Net income attributable to shareholders$180,177 $70,659 $21,344 $109,518 $49,315 

41


The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income attributable to shareholders to Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Net income attributable to shareholders$180,177 $70,659 $21,344 $109,518 $49,315 
Add: (Benefit from) provision for income taxes(24,440)2,961 1,135 (27,401)1,826 
Add: Equity-based compensation expense225 — — 225 — 
Add: Acquisition and transaction expenses1,722 243 — 1,479 243 
Add: Losses on the modification or extinguishment of debt and capital lease obligations — — — — 
Add: Changes in fair value of non-hedge derivative instruments — — — — 
Add: Asset impairment charges — — — — 
Add: Incentive allocations— — — — — 
Add: Depreciation and amortization expense661 258 66 403 192 
Add: Interest expense and dividends on preferred shares — — — — 
Add: Pro-rata share of Adjusted EBITDA from unconsolidated entities (1)
206 (885)(1,203)1,091 318 
Less: Equity in losses of unconsolidated entities1,458 1,109 1,403 349 (294)
Less: Non-controlling share of Adjusted EBITDA
 — — — — 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$160,009 $74,345 $22,745 $85,664 $51,600 
__________________________________________________

(1) Includes the following items for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021: (i) net loss of $1,458, $1,109 and $1,403 (ii) depreciation and amortization of $1,236, $224 and $200 and (iii) acquisition and transaction expense of $428, $0, $0, respectively.

Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Revenues
Total Aerospace Products revenue increased $276.5 million primarily driven by an increase in sales relating to the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 engines, engine modules, spare parts and used material inventory as operations continued to ramp-up in 2023. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $181.2 million primarily due to an increase in costs of sales and operating expenses.
Cost of sales increased $170.8 million primarily as a result of an increase in Aerospace Product sales and the gross presentation described above.
Operating expenses increased $8.5 million primarily due to an increase in commission expenses due to the increase in sales from the used material program as well as an increase in shipping and storage fees as operations continued to ramp-up in 2023.
Other income (expense)
Total other income decreased $13.2 million which primarily reflects a decrease of $18.2 million in Gain on sale of assets, net, partially offset by an increase of $5.3 million in gain on consolidation of investment in connection with the QuickTurn acquisition, and an increase of $0.3 million in our proportionate share of unconsolidated entities’ net loss. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
The benefit from income taxes increased $27.4 million primarily due to the Company establishing a deferred tax asset of $25.6 million in connection with a tax law change in Bermuda, which was recorded as a benefit from income taxes during the fourth quarter of 2023. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $85.7 million primarily due to the changes noted above.
42


Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenues
Total Aerospace Products revenue increased $155.2 million primarily driven by an increase in sales relating to the CFM56-7B, CFM56-5B and V2500 engines, engine modules, spare parts and used material inventory as operations ramped up in 2022. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Expenses
Total expenses increased $102.1 million primarily due to an increase in costs of sales and operating expenses.
Cost of sales increased $95.2 million primarily as a result of an increase in Aerospace Product sales and the gross presentation described above.
Operating expenses increased $6.5 million primarily due to an increase in commission expenses due to the increase in sales from the used material program as well as an increase in professional fees and other operating expenses due to the ramp-up of Aerospace Products.
Other income (expense)
Total other income decreased $1.9 million, which primarily reflects a decrease of $2.2 million in Gain on sale of assets, net. See above discussion regarding presentation of asset sales.
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP)
Adjusted EBITDA increased $51.6 million primarily due to the changes noted above.

Corporate and Other
The following table presents our results of operations:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)202320222021 '23 vs '22 '22 vs '21
Revenues
Lease income$28,232 $20,246 $10,131 $7,986 $10,115 
Other revenue6,083 6,702 4,030 (619)2,672 
Total revenues34,315 26,948 14,161 7,367 12,787 
Expenses
Operating expenses51,828 39,065 21,429 12,763 17,636 
General and administrative13,700 14,164 13,448 (464)716 
Acquisition and transaction expenses6,322 11,041 16,929 (4,719)(5,888)
Management fees and incentive allocation to affiliate18,037 3,562 684 14,475 2,878 
Depreciation and amortization10,862 8,401 7,996 2,461 405 
Interest expense161,639 169,194 155,017 (7,555)14,177 
Total expenses262,388 245,427 215,503 16,961 29,924 
Other income (expense)
Loss on extinguishment of debt (19,859)(3,254)19,859 (16,605)
Other income (expense)943 (39)37 982 (76)
Total other income (expense)943 (19,898)(3,217)20,841 (16,681)
Loss before income taxes(227,130)(238,377)(204,559)11,247 (33,818)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes833 (163)(82)996 (81)